Friday, 13 November 2020

ONLINE VERSUS HARD COPY NEWS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NEWS SOURCES OF ABUJA RESIDENTS

 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study 

The emergence of Information Communication Technology (ICT) has transformed the way we interact and carry out our businesses.  ICT for short has been incorporated in our everyday activity and the newspaper is no exception.  Owing to the advent of ICT, readers of news have varied options to choose from i.e the hard copy news papers or the online copy especially since the Internet came to provide online functionalities and possibilities far beyond what the newspaper could offer: instant and free news, interactive and multimedia features, and easy accessibility through very simple handheld technologies like mobile phones and personal computers (Adejumo, 2014). 

Chukwu,  (2014), asserts that online copy news publication is simpler and cheaper and according to Hasan, (2014), the online copy news is evidently a more superior way to distribute and read news. However, by astronomically increasing news sources, the online copy new inadvertently threatened the newspaper’s traditional stronghold on the news business.  This proposed study seeks to examine the online versus hard copy news: a comparative analysis of news sources of Abuja residents.

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

With rising globalisation, stiff competition and technological development, the newspapers industry is not new to changes; it is witnessing transition from analogue to digital and more recently it is undergoing the transformation from delivery of contents on papers (Hardcopy) to delivery via the Internet (online copy) (West, 2015).  However, there is a growing concern of the authenticity of the online copy news, while on the other hands, the hardcopy news has its own challenges of not giving breaking news since news are printed at night against the following days. These challenges have left news readers in a state of dilemma on either to opt for online copy news or hardcopy news and it is against this background that this study seeks to examine the online versus hard copy news.  

1.3 Objective of the Study 

The main objective of this proposed study is to examine the online versus hard copy news.  The specific objectives are to;

i. Evaluate how authentic is the online copy news compared to hard copy news 

ii. Comparatively analyze the features of both online copy and hard copy news 

1.4 Research Questions 

i. How authentic is the online copy news compared to hard copy news? 

ii. What are the features of both online copy and hard copy news?


1.5 Research Hypothesis 

H0: Online copy news has no better features than hardcopy news 

H1: Online copy news has better features than hardcopy news 


1.6  Significance of the Study 

This proposed study will be of immense benefit to both Media houses and government agencies saddled with the responsibility to regulate the media houses as the findings from the proposed study may be adopted by newspaper companies to improve on their publishing  and government agencies in regulating online news contents.  

Finally, the proposed study will be  added to the body of knowledge and serve as reference material to other researchers, scholars that would love to embark on a similar topic. 

1.7  Scope and Limitations of the Study 

This proposed study is limited in scope to online versus hard copy news: a comparative analysis of news sources of Abuja residents.   The proposed study will sample some residents in Abuja, the Federal Capital of Nigeria. 

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Friday, 30 October 2020

Research Proposal on CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN MTN NIGERIA

 SECTOR ONE 

INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Background to the Study 

Conflict among workers in an organization is inevitable. If it manages properly, it will bring catalyst for change and can have a positive impact on employee satisfaction and performance of the organization. Conversely, unmanaged conflict negatively impacts both employee satisfaction and job performance. When organizational leaders ignore workplace conflict, they send a message that unsatisfactory job performance and inappropriate behavior are acceptable. Awan &  Anjum (2015) says that properly managed conflict promotes open communication, collaborative decision making, regular feedback, and timely resolution of conflict. Open communication and collaboration enhance the flow of new ideas and strengthen work relationship, which can have a positive effect on employee morale. Regular feedback and timely resolution of conflict has the potential of improving employee satisfaction and job performance. Henry, (2011) argue that a negative work environment that does not promote conflict resolution can result in poor employee behavior and job performance. Unmanaged conflict promotes dysfunctional communication and poor behavior among staff. Poor behavior on the part of one employee has the power to affect overall employee morale, which results in lower productivity. If individuals do not have the communication or interpersonal skills to resolve their disputes, the conflict can grow and spread to others, eventually affecting their job performance, which, in turn, affects the job satisfaction of others, as well in addition to the staff not having the communication skills to address their disputes, their leaders often lack the necessary skills to be effective in conflict resolution (Hynes, 2011). 

Once human resources personnel are involved, the process becomes punitive and results in disciplinary action, which contributes to an even greater reduction in employee morale and employee satisfaction. Within any organization, there are usually different positions and jobs. People occupying these positions have different perceptions, goals, thought and concerns (Kazimoto, 2013). 


1.2 Statement of the Problem


Conflict can occur in any organization when employees with different backgrounds and priorities work together. Conflict can be expressed in numerous ways such as insults, noncooperation, and anger. Interpersonal conflict in an organization results from disagreement in some ways which can be emotional, physical and personal between two or more employees. Such disagreements could have negative effects on productivity owing to the ability to create organizational climate that makes it nearly impossible for employees to work together (Hickman, 2010). Furthermore, interpersonal conflict in an organization can not only affect morale but also impact the efficiency. It can also lead to strained relationships, grievances, absenteeism, and employee turnover. Unfortunately, interpersonal conflict is a common occurrence in an organization due to different personalities that must mesh and it against this background that this proposed study seeks to examine conflict management and organizational performance. 

MTN, as a telecommunication Firm has being suffering one form or the other of conflict, mostly interpersonal conflict among her staff which has affected the smooth operation of the institute overtime. The effective management of these conflicts will go a long way to enhance performance of the organization in meeting to its mandate.


1.3   Research Questions

1) To what extent avoidance as a conflict management strategy influences employee’s performance?

2) How has  collaboration as method  assisted as conflict management strategy in organization?


3) Is  accommodation effective as conflict management strategy in organization? 

4) How has compromise as conflict management strategy affect employee’s  performance in organization? 


1.4  Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this proposed study is to examine conflict management and organizational performance. Other specific objectives include:


1) To know how avoidance can be used as conflict management strategy  in organization.

2) To evaluate the methods of collaboration as conflict management  in organization.

3) To assess the effective of accommodation as conflict management strategy in organization.

4) To determine how significant compromise is as  conflict management strategy in organization 

Friday, 23 October 2020

THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (2010-2015) CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

With the evolution of globalization, most especially since the end of the world war 11, the world has become a much global place where interaction between different countries has led to a situation in which country’s economy and development are not only in the hands of government, but also highly influenced by international organizations and international trade where international laws and legislations pre- dominate (Gabriel, 2012).

Globalization has been a highly controversial process that has been placed under serious criticism in its current capitalist form and comes to a surprised economics and policy makers who are believed to be highly convinced of the benefit this form of globalization can bring to the developing countries like Nigeria (Adesoye, Ajike, & Maku, 2015).  Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, idea and other aspect of cultures (Akunbi, 2013).

According to Francis, (2010), globalization refers to the increasing integration among nations which has accelerated sharply over the past half a century, gotten largely by the remarkable expansion in international trade and extra ordinary advances in information and communication technologies. 


Globalization is the term used to describe the growing worldwide interdependence of people and countries, a process which has grown tremendously in the past decade, mainly because of great innovation in technology (Okpokpo, Ifelunini, & Osuyali, 2014).

Williams, (2010), maintains that the main essence of globalization is to move the economy towards external liberation, focusing on market- oriented economic system export-led strategy and stabilization of the economy.  Utuk,  (2015) stated that there are two views on globalization, one given by anti-globalist and the other by supporters of globalization or simply globalist. The ant-globalist view globalization as controlling and influencing force used by overseas cooperation’s to dominate international trade. This criticism has given rise to theories such as Dependency theory and new colonialism.

According to the globalist, globalization is the only true way to beat poverty, they argue that foreign direct investment will help developing nations to industrialize, create job opportunity and acquire manufacturing skills. Economic growth implies a change in the way goods and services are produced, not merely an increase in production achieved using the old method of production on a wider scale. But, it also involves improvement in a variety of indicators such as literacy rate, life expectancy and in addition poverty rates, in line with increasing private income, economic growth also generate additional resources that can be used to improve social services such as health care, social amenities, and safe drinking watered (Shuaib, Ekeria, & Ogedengbe, 2015). 

Over the years, globalisation has proven to be the most adopted mechanism in dealing with economic development, improving the social welfare of states and strengthening political ties between countries. Globalisation development theory adopts policies such as liberalisation, privatisation, deregulation and capitalism for effective results (Barry, 2010). However, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015) report shows that globalization policies are much more favourable to North America, Europe and some part of Asia compared to African countries whose economic, political and social growth has been stunted by some of these policies, hence their failure in benefiting from globalisation.


Globalisation as the World Health Organisation (2017) puts it, is "the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of peoples and countries generally understood to include two inter-related elements: the opening of international borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people and ideas; and the changes in institutions and policies at national and international levels that facilitate or promote such flows."

Nigeria being the giant of Africa has long accepted globalisation as a means to achieving rapid economic development. Paradoxically, with so much natural resources at its disposal, 53.5% of Nigerians were living in absolute poverty (World bank data 2009) and Nigeria's human development index reportedly ranks 152nd position (United Nations Development programme 2016). Given these figures, coupled with her high unemployment rate, vulnerable economy, bad policies, unhealthy investment climate, high level of indebtedness and corruption, it is clear that Nigeria is one of the most disadvantaged countries engaged in globalisation.

The concept of globalisation is not a new concept in Nigeria. It has always existed and has been embraced in most frameworks of the country (Akunbi, 2013). Nigeria has since been engaging in the globalisation process, adopting policies such as disinvestment, privatisation, commercialization and devaluation. However, recent data from the Economic Report on Nigeria (2015) shows that Nigeria has been experiencing slow growth. Some of the reasons for this challenge includes the Naira devaluation which ultimately led to higher cost of purchasing goods and services, structural problems that result in lack of transparency, low oil prices and revenue caused by liquidity, restricted fiscal policies and tighter monetary policies which engenders high interest rates and reduced activity in the capital market.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Globalization fringes economic development in economy globalization is faced to be a systematic way which technological advanced countries  to develop them by way of investing in the economic. However ,the effect of globalization on developing and undeveloped countries can be vividly seen, as the developed nations (i.e. technological advanced countries) tend to use the undeveloped and developing countries as their dumping, ground, for their used products and their sub-standard products for example electronic.

Also globalization has also faced the challenge of culture and language barrier, the different variation in culture and language of the different countries tend to affect the bilateral relations. One of the challenges of underdevelopment is the inability of a country to produce and create  unemployment for its citizenry, in order to meet up with the economic needs and social economic needs of its members. However, the research study is geared toward using the research study to solve these challenges in Nigeria economy.     

Globalization as the World Health Organisation (2017) puts it, is "the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of peoples and countries generally understood to include two inter-related elements: the opening of international borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people and ideas; and the changes in institutions and policies at national and international levels that facilitate or promote such flows."

Unemployment rate: Nigeria has long been engaged in the process of globalisation which implies, integrated economies, removal of trade barriers, increased cross-border relations amongst countries and interdependence between nations. The benefits of the above mentioned have been achieved by developed countries and leading democracies in the world. 

Wednesday, 21 October 2020

End of Module Project

 



Assignment Question

As an HR professional, we need to provide policies and practices which will enable us to get the best performance from our employees. As an HR professional what can we do to ensure that this happens?

Looking at an organisation which you are familiar with and their HR strategy please provide a critical review of:

The methods they employ to engage and retain employees? Is this effective?

What is the reward strategy currently used by the organisation? How is the effectiveness of these methods monitored and reviewed? Has this been found to be effective?

Provide recommendations for increasing the performance of employees within the organisation based upon the review carried out.



Introduction

The policies and practices of human resources management are the principles that a company follows in the management of its employees (O'Dea, 2017). It provides human resource professionals with detailed guidance on different job issues and helps in defining the company’s purpose with regard to multiple facets of human resource management including recruiting, promotion, compensation, training, selection etc. They are benchmarks for designing strategies in human resources or for deciding about the employees of a corporation (Anderson, 2014).A successful Human resource policy offers extensive input on the strategy to be followed by the company’s workers in their different job roles. All across companies, there are specific situations, and a set of unique organizational policies that are created to meet the needs of such situations (Pravin, 2010). Therefore the aim of this report is to provide a critical review of the methods Nestle Plc employs in engaging and retaining its employees, showing how effective it is, what reward strategy Nestle Plc is currently using, How the effectiveness of the methods are monitored and reviewed, and also how effective the method has been.

About Nestle Nigeria Plc.

Nestlé Nigeria PLC is among Africa’s largest beverages industries. Nestlé have been in the production of excellent standard nutritionally balanced products for customers in Africa for over decades. The corporation manufactures and distributes many famous brands, comprising Maggi, Milo, Golden Morn, Nescafe and Nestlé Pure Life, with more than 2,300 staff, 3 production plants, 8 branches and a headquarters situated in Lagos. The goal of Nestle is to enhance the health and wellbeing of the society. The corporation supports the environment whilst achieving the company's long-term sustainability (Tay & Diener, 2011).

Nestles attitude towards business is in a prolong strategy. They have always been of the opinion that that the business success is in the creation of value for their stakeholders and their environment.  The technique they employed for corporate activities was called Creating Shared Value (CSV) (Chiang &Birtch, 2010).

Mid-Module Assignment

 

In unit 4 you will submit your mid-module assignment.

Assignment Question

Looking at an organisation that you are familiar with provide applied critical assessment of the recruitment and selection procedure being used as part of the larger Talent Management process.

1. Provide background information on your organisation, outlining the HR function and its responsibilities.

2. Outline and assess the full Talent Management process used within the organisation.

3. What HR planning has taken place within your organisation? Is this sufficient?

4. How has the Talent Management Process incorporated internal and external changes / trends?

Looking at your analysis and best practice what recommendations if any would you make for improvement within your organisation?


Introduction

For decades, Human resource management has evolved significantly and has played an essential role in organizational success (Hills, 2011). Human resource management played a more administrative function which includes recruitment and selection, motivation, reward and compensation, payroll processing and so on (Church, 2015).Several organizations are aware that the task of talent management is essential to the hiring of the best employees, their coaching, creating a friendly working environment, good payment structure and the engagement protocols for wellness programs and satisfaction of employees. As an outcome of an effective recruiting program, talent management has evolved (Church & Rotolo, 2013). Therefore, this report seeks to present a historical information on the organizational HR roles and obligations, outline and evaluate the talent management process, how has the talent management process has been incorporated both internal and external changes.  Furthermore, the report used Fidelity Bank Plc as a model organization and recommends improvements for the organizations. 

Organizational Background Information

Fidelity Bank Plc started its business as Fidelity Union Merchant Bank Limited in 1988. The institution currently has a footprint in Nigeria's metropolitan areas and corporate headquarters. It ranks amongst the first 10 in the financial services sector (Chima, 2014). The financial institution is renowned for its integrity in its activities particularly for providing its clients countrywide with quality services. In the Nigerian financial sector, the standard of the education acquired at the workplace and at fantastic business colleges within both Nigeria and abroad, also value Fidelity Bank employees. Fidelity Bank has always been mindful of the caliber of individuals it hires to make sure the best talents for the job were hired so as to facilitate collaboration, information sharing and skills within the workplace that can enhance profitability of all stakeholders of the organization (Chima, 2014),

Fidelity Bank offers equal opportunity to every workers and candidates, regardless of race, colour, ethnicity, sex, sexual preference, gender identification or speech, national origin, age, impairment, hereditary details, relationship status, parole or military condition, in compliance with appropriate federal, state and local regulations (Lockwood, 2010). 

Monday, 19 October 2020

PUBLIC AND INTERNATIONAL LAW (CA)

 

QUESTION 1

There is no question that there are substantial and important differences between international law and municipal law. There is, of course, no overarching legislature of international law capable of passing binding international laws. There is no international legislative body and no corresponding national legislature. The international legal framework is primarily one that requires the permission of those it can govern, but not strictly.International law can generally only be formed by consent – issues who cannot be forced should never be compelled to do so. The scheme of international law is best understood as a horizontal hierarchical arrangement, not a vertical one.  What it means is that while legislation is enacted in domestic law on the subjects by the legislative body, it is the parties themselves who make the law in international law for themselves. This is somewhat unsatisfactory, but it may be best understood as the appropriate consequence of international law specifically dealing with laws directed at sovereign States. Likewise, there is no international tribunal in which States can regularly be required to appear in violation of international law.  

The function of the state is complex in the modern world. According to legal theory, each state is sovereign and equal, but it cannot be fully sovereign to the most powerful states. The growth and expansion of international law raises concerns about the role of the state in the international system. This has led to a growing interpenetration of international and municipal law in a number of fields, such as human rights, environmental and international investment legislation.

Municipal law regulates the domestic facets of government and discusses issues between individuals and between individuals and the administrative system, while international law emphasizes the relationship between states.  However, this is now an unduly common claim. There are also situations where there may be conflicts and complications between the two systems. In a proceeding before a municipal court, an international law rule can be introduced as a shield against an allegation, as in R v. Jones , for example, where the privilege of trying to deter a greater crime (essentially international law) has been asserted in relation to the suspected criminal offense (in English law) or where a vessel is punished for being in territorial waters (as applicable to domestic law) but will be considered as part of the high seas under international law.

Nonetheless, there are cases where both national and international tribunals have the same situation which can apply in a complex mediation process with each other's decisions. There exists an International Court of Justice, although that only includes cases between parties involved before the Court and only states are eligible whether the Court decides to issue a definitive decision instead of providing an advisory opinion . The Court has no part to play in penalizing States that violate their obligations under international law.The function is to settle state-to - state conflicts by using sanctions. And while some states have acknowledged the International Court of Justice's compulsory jurisdiction, it would only be applicable in disputes between states where both parties to the conflict have agreed to the compulsory jurisdiction.  Most likely the Court may only have authority if the parties to the case agree to the Court's jurisdiction over a specific case. So the focus here too remains on consent.

QUESTION 2A

The Montevideo convention on right and duties of a state, under Article 1, outlined four requirements for statehood. Article 1 reads thus:

“The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualification: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d)capacity to enter into relations with other states.” 

Permanent Population: The first requirements of the Montevideo convention include the permanent population of the state and the definition of this population as a 'stable community.' As a result, the population must be united, but not uniform in reality. This need underlines the critical need for some sort of stable human community capable of sustaining the superstructure of the state. It means that the occupants will have the goal of living in a given place forever . The simple occupancy of the land would not be adequate to satisfy the legal obligation. The presence of historically nomadic people does not necessarily have a lasting effect on permanence necessity.

Nevertheless, it does seem obvious that there is a need for any permanence to satisfy this condition, if not in living conditions then at least to imply the stability of the society over time. This does not automatically imply that it requires any unique amount of durability or prolonged legacy before a population can form the foundation of a society. Nor is the size of the population needed, as shown by the presence of states with very small populations. 

Territory: To meet the second Montevideo condition, power of a certain territory must be exercised. This condition is a crucial prerequisite for nationhood . Exclusive territorial jurisdiction remains a basic requirement for every State's ability and power to execute and exercise its State functions both in fact and in statute. 

Determining the exact delimitations of this area is not a prerequisite. In the case ofNorth Sea Continental Shelf the international Court of Justice held that:

“The appurtenance of a given area, considered as an entity in no way governs

the precise determination of its boundaries, any more than uncertainty as

to boundaries can affect territorial rights. There is, for instance, no rule that

the land frontiers of a State must be fully delimited and defined, and often in

various places and for long periods they are not” 

The region's size or income isn't significant either. What is relevant in terms of territory is the creation of an exclusive right to exhibit state control in that region – that is, active government. Sufficient if a state’s territory possessesa “sufficient consistency” even though its boundaries have not yet been accurately delimited 


Government: The third requirement of Montevideo convention allows a state agency to have a central government functioning as a legislative institution under land law and in successful territorial power. The society in question must be constituted of a hierarchical, fairly structured political order; central institutions must exist for the formation and enforcement of the norms of that order, particularly that organ called government. State obligation is not bound to any single mode or type of government, but rather to a cohesive, functional, and efficient governmental organization. 

The mere existence of a government would not be enough to satisfy the demands of an effective society. To accomplish this, it must be independent and autonomous, meaning that it is not subject to the control of another State across its territories. In international law, the importance of government as a metric of statehood is best respected by appreciating the need for stability and productivity both within the state and in the external relations of the state.

Capacity to Enter into Legal Relations:This is the fourth and last of the Montevideo convention requirement for statehood and is highly discrete, but it is often viewed in practice as being closely related to the third prerequisite of effective policy. It is because the willingness to negotiate with other states is mainly concerned with the developing institution possessing the requisite diplomatic and legal mechanisms for participating in the dynamic field of international affairs . The crucial factor attached to this condition is that of the willingness to function independently, rather than evidence of practice, in international legal affairs. This is attributed to the fact that central governments and not regional governments have the right to intervene at the international level.

Sunday, 18 October 2020

End of Module Project




Environmental Scan

You have been requested to produce an environmental scan for an organisation of your choice. The organisation must have cross-border business relationships with an EU country. 


Your analysis should contain the following:

Some context; the organisation's recent history, its objectives and structure, its products/services, etc.

The relationships with an EU country must be specified and briefly explained.

A PESTLE analysis examining how each of the elements of the external business environment has had an impact on the organisation. 

A critical examination of one element in the external business environment which you consider likely to have the greatest potential impact on the organisation in the near future.

Your completed document should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words in length.


Click here to watch a short lecturecast designed to help you write your assignment.


The learning outcomes for this assignment are:

Evaluate the broad approaches to organisation and management

Understand the economic environment of business

Examine the nature of economic activity in the business market

Identify and understand the main reasons why countries benefit from engaging in international trade with each other

Recognise the importance of the European single market for British business


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Mid-Module Assignment

 

With the aid of examples:


Explain the terms internal environment and external environment

Assess the view that "government intervention in a market economy is necessary to improve the environments in which businesses operate"

Your response should be in the form of a written report between 1,500 and 2,000 words.


Click here to watch a short lecturecast designed to help you write your assignment.


The learning outcomes for this assignment are:

Examine the nature of economic activity in the business market

Understand the economic environment of business

Evaluate the broad approaches to organisation and management


For more and complete academic materials, visit our Virtual Academic Environment at www.researchshelf.com or download our mobile App for past exam questions and answers at www.examoracle.com.  You can also contact us for research work such as theses, dissertations, projects, essays, assignments, reports and management of your entire students on +2347069373637 or israelugbo@gmail.com. 

Friday, 16 October 2020

GLOBAL SECURITY



INTRODUCTION

The definition of "security" is most often viewed as a specific meaning that "unrecognized majority view" can comprehend. Through the years, global security coverage has widened. It now includes a host of intertwined global problems affecting continued existence (Saier, & Trevors, 2010), It includes the usual or classical military power types, the benefits and costs of war among nations, economic prosperity, racial and cultural disputes, trade and disputes, electrical systems resources, technology and innovation, food, and harassments to human safety and the flexibility of the countries based on environmental deterioration, communicable disease, global warming (Baylis, 2011).  Global security, also called international security, is a condition of action to ensure collective existence and stability by nations and international bodies such as the United Nations, the European Union etc. these involve military action and diplomacy conferences, such as treaties and agreements, Invariable connection between domestic and international securities. National security or State security in the global arena is global security (Wohlforth, 2010). This essay will focus on revolutions as a huge contributor to global security, the challenges of global security through global terrorism as well as air pollution and global security.

Security is a key human issue, with a large number of sub-lists. We also take specific instances of economic security, national security, clean energy security, nuclear safety, information security, security of democracy and civil rights, individual security, and safety of human welfare. But the fact that we all must be interested with the global security of our communal ecosystem is now very evident (Buzan, & Hansen, 2009).  

All this includes global security, but it still relies most crucially on our environmental and social safety. This also calls for the creation of fundamental basic social rights. 

A dynamic community of support and their actions in a fast - changing world is crucial for achieving global security. It needs to concentrate on global warming and weather disruption and demographic increase, two of the most significant challenges that arise quickly (Elman, 2008).

We are still threatened with nuclear arms, but their relative value can decrease as global warming and weather transition and population increase proceed to deteriorate our ecosystem. We also need to start concentrating on several carbon emissions forms which lead to environmental destabilization and species loss of biodiversity (Tzemach, 2013). 

REVOLUTION AS A CONTRIBUTOR TO GLOBAL SECURITY

Revolutions are a huge contributor to social upheaval and the degradation of the climate. Wars are a type of disregard that we cannot tolerate anymore. We should dismantle atomic bombs and stop wars. Foreign forces must control military practices, and large amounts of military money must be avoided. These are old and discarded usage of our capital. We are facing and solving more critical issues (Global Economic Symposium, 2014).  We must also look at current and new highly contagious infections in order to worsen the circumstance. In order to fight them, there is a lack of global infrastructure. When international pandemics strike, nobody will feel safe. Communicable infections would make the natural selection of living beings barbaric with great pain and misery (Ivančík, 2013).

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EFFECTIVENESS OF DIGITAL MARKETING STRATEGIES ON ORGANIZATION’S PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF MULTICHIOCE NIGERIA)


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Background to the Study

Organizations in the digital age are exploring the best channels to reach consumers owing to competition, dynamism in the business environment and the quest for survival (Dike, 2015).  The increasing popularity of the Internet and its associated web applications has propelled many organizations into adopting what is known today as digital marketing to reach their target markets (Kim, & Ko, 2011).Smith, & Zook, (2011), indicate that the numbers of persons, organizations and governments using the internet globally has increased tremendously, thus shifting the attention of markers to digital marketing. 

Baines, Fill, & Page, (2011), defined digital marketing as the practice of promoting goods and services through digital methods and the Internet technology to reach online consumers.  The increasing relevance of internet technology has had a huge significance on marketing activities of organizations (both small and big) as it goes beyond physical boundaries in bringing buyers and sellers together (Bennett, & Maton, 2010). In addition, the internet enables organizations to access markets, while maintaining a presence that enhances competition against rival organizations. 

Stokes, (2011) posits that effective digital marketing is essential owing to increasing levels of globalization and the quest for business performance, profitand success.  In this context, Smith, & Zook, (2011) assert that various organizations have adopted new methods to improve their marketing activities in order to achieving competitive advantage. Nevertheless, there has been a lot of argument (Welch, & Worthington, 2010; Rowley, 2011 and   Wekesa, &Maalu, 2016) on the effectiveness of digital technologies in marketing.  Social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram, amongst others, have been identified as major channels for digital and online marketing of goods and services by organizations,in view of their significant impact on businesses performance (Rowley, 2011). 

Kotler, (2010) contends that in business, marketing and innovation attract results, while other activities represent costs. Consequently,effective marketing strategiesare crucial in order to achieve organizational objectives. Qualman, (2013), stresses the need to assess the effect of digital marketing on organizational growth and performance,towardsassessing and arriving at the best methods in which organizations cantake advantage of new opportunities to attain competitive advantage over their rivals in the business world. Kates, & Matthew, (2013), aver that in the world of digital age, organizations should take advantage of emerging digital technologies in their marketing activities or face the risk of being thrown out of business by competitors. 

Kuppuswamy & Narayan (2011), maintain that the proper application of digital marketing could meet the needs of the customer, byattracting and retaining consumers and attaining higher business performance.One of the major objectives of business organizations is to make profits for expansion and for its shareholders and this could be achieved, to a large extent, by effective marketing strategies (Scott, 2010). 


1.2. Statement of the Problem

The ever-changing business environment and the revolution in digital technologies continue to pose complex challenges to organizations which require the adoption of best methods for competitiveness and performance.  These challenges have been witnessed across sectors globally, thus driving organizations to be more innovative, scan the environment, embrace technology and effectively target their customers in order to remain relevant and competitive. In order to survive amidst this dynamism, organizations have progressed from being product-driven to market-driven, which has allowed better understanding of customers and competitors (Chen, Chen, & Capistrano, 2013). A paradigm shift, to achieve success in business performance and outdo competitors.

Organizations all over the world have been faced with problems on how to compete effectively and survive in the dynamic business environment. To overcome these problems, organizations have had to devise effective strategies such as marketing plans, through a mapping and thorough assessment of the most effective and efficient promotional channels.  The ability of organizations to reactswiftly and responsively to the environmental challenges depends mostly on the strategies adopted for its marketing activities (Welch, & Worthington, 2010). 

Wednesday, 14 October 2020

INVESTIGATING STRUCTURES UBLLWH-30-1 TECHNICAL REPORT

 INTRODUCTION: 

Explain broadly the content of the module and the importance of structured order of learning and output in relation to understanding and development architectural solutions.

Investigating structures is the introduction to the contemporary expertise of architecture, how structures are being developed and the core technical aspects of architecture which are; structures, materials, survey, construction and so on. This module aids in giving people the demonstration of being in charge of a fundamental skill set. Investigating structures likewise helps in informing individuals if a structure is loadbearing or a frame building. Experiencing all the topics in this module, students understand the linkage of the topics. This shows the analytical and cyclic procedure that is linked to studio work (helping students understand more on their studio project) which is the beginning of professional for an architect.


Chapter 1: SURVEY

a) Explain 3 different types of survey undertaken by a building surveyor, include explanation of when they would be used and when they would focus on


TRIANGULATION SURVEY:

This is the tracing and measurement of an arrangement or system of triangles to determine distances and relative position of points spread over an area, by measuring the length of one side of each triangle and concluding its edges and length of other different sides by observation from this baseline. Triangulation is best used for hills and undulating areas, this is because it is easy to build up stations at a reasonable distance apart, with indivisibility. However, In the plane and crowded areas, it is not suitable as the indivisibility of stations is affected. Although, towers could be built, which are expensive


CONDITION SURVEY:

This is a detailed inspection of a building to support and fix condition around then. It is done at a level that surveys each building element, portraying it and giving a point of interest of its present state. This can be used for concrete structures, cabins, bathrooms. A condition survey is essentially a fundamental device used to completely comprehend the state of a building and how to repair and maintain it.


MEASURING SURVEY:

This type of survey involves taking measurements of sites or buildings to create accurate data that is then represented at a reduced scale. They are typically indicated to a concurred degree of detail, to acceptable accuracy tolerance, scale, delivery times and costs. Measuring survey are used for the redevelopment of a property or when you intend to expand a property. This survey method can likewise be used when the owner of the property wants detailed information required for designing a safety plan. As it covers the internal floor plans, the cross-section of a building, internal and external elevations. The report would be comprehensive and useful when the owner of the house links the report to the topographic survey. It focusses on accuracy. This is because errors could prompt to severe application. Hence, it is imperative to appoint trained and expert surveyors. 


b) Provide an overview of the information and structure of a building condition survey report


A building survey aims to detect any errors in a property. This is accomplished by giving detailed information about the inspected building. The report is needed to document the current condition of the property, anticipate expensive that might be seen, causes of deformation, evasion of possible issues, maintenance and conservation needed and so on. What's more, building survey could be completed with the purpose of inspection and maintenance, for an improved standard of building condition and productivity and tenure with the reason for advancement if necessary.

AN EXAMINATION OF THE ICPC ACT IN COMBATING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

 CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

Corruption is Nigeria’s leading single problem. Corruption is prevalent and omnipresent in Nigerian society. It has infiltrated all facets of life, and every segment of society is involved. In recent times, Nigeria has held the unenviable record of being considered one of the most corrupt countries among those surveyed.  The Political Bureau, set up under the Ibrahim Babangida regime, summed up the magnitude of corruption in Nigeria as follows:

Corruption pervades all strata of the society. From the highest level of the political and business elites to the ordinary person in the village. Its multifarious manifestations include the inflation of government contracts in return for kickbacks; fraud and falsification of accounts in the public service; examination malpractices in our educational institutions including universities; the taking of bribes and perversion of justice among the police, the Judiciary and other organs for administering justice; and various heinous crimes against the state in business and industrial sectors of our economy, in collusion with multinational companies such as over-invoicing of goods, foreign exchange swindling, hoarding and smuggling. 

At the village level, corruption manifests itself in such forms as adulteration of market goods or denting of measures to reduce their contents with a view to giving advantage to the seller. 

Other manifestations of corruption in Nigeria today include the buying of votes, election rigging and malpractices, the use of money to sway the national and state assemblies, and political donations by private corporations.

President Olusegun Obasanjo, upon coming to power for a second time on May 29, 1999, promised that fighting corruption would be one of the policy thrusts of his administration. Accordingly, the first bill he forwarded to the National Assembly was the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offenses bill, which became the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offenses Act of 2000 (hereinafter the "Act").  The provisions of the Act set up the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offenses Commission (hereinafter the "ICPC").  President Obasanjo established, among other initiatives throughout the Presidency, a policy and programmes monitoring unit  and a Due Process Office.  This project seeks to critically examine the legal and institutional framework for combating corruption with specific focus on the ICPC.


1.1 Background to the Study

Corruption is a word with so many facets and ramifications that it cannot be easily defined. The World Bank has defined corruption as "the abuse of public office for private gain."  According to the World Bank, a public office is abused for private gain when an official accepts, solicits, or extorts a bribe.  Further, abuse of a public office occurs when private agents actively offer bribes to circumvent public policies and processes for competitive advantage and profit.  Even if no bribery occurs, public office can be abused for personal benefit as well, through patronage and nepotism, the theft of state assets, and the diversion of state revenue. 

These definitions are deficient, however, in that they are concerned only with public sector corruption, thereby ignoring corruption in the private sector. Additionally, Transparency International (hereinafter "TI") has defined corruption as "the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit."  This definition appears to be as deficient as the World Bank's definition. "Entrusted power" suggests power within a public office, however, in some cases it may also arise in private matters. Furthermore, corruption may involve an exercise of power neither expressly nor implicitly granted.

In the Nigerian case of Biobaku v. Police,  Bairarnian, J. defined corruption as the receiving or offering of some benefit as a reward or inducement to sway or deflect the receiver from the honest and impartial discharge of his duties. However, this definition appears to define bribery more so than corruption because corruption is a wider concept that encompasses bribery. In effect, corruption may occur without the element of receiving or offering some benefit as a reward or inducement to sway or deflect the receiver from the honest and impartial discharge of his duties.

Monday, 12 October 2020

END OF THE MODULE PROJECT: Looking at an organisation which you are familiar with and their HR strategy please provide a critical review of: • The methods they employ to engage and retain employees? Is this effective? • What is the reward strategy currently used by the organisation? How is the effectiveness of these methods monitored and reviewed? Has this been found to be effective?

 







Introduction

The policies and practices of human resources management are the principles that a company follows in the management of its employees (O'Dea, 2017). It provides human resource professionals with detailed guidance on different job issues and helps in defining the company’s purpose with regard to multiple facets of human resource management including recruiting, promotion, compensation, training, selection etc. They are benchmarks for designing strategies in human resources or for deciding about the employees of a corporation (Anderson, 2014). A successful Human resource policy offers extensive input on the strategy to be followed by the company’s workers in their different job roles. All across companies, there are specific situations, and a set of unique organizational policies that are created to meet the needs of such situations (Pravin, 2010). Therefore the aim of this report is to provide a critical review of the methods Nestle Plc employs in engaging and retaining its employees, showing how effective it is, what reward strategy Nestle Plc is currently using, How the effectiveness of the methods are monitored and reviewed, and also how effective the method has been.

About Nestle Nigeria Plc.

Nestlé Nigeria PLC is among Africa’s largest beverages industries. Nestlé have been in the production of excellent standard nutritionally balanced products for customers in Africa for over decades. The corporation manufactures and distributes many famous brands, comprising Maggi, Milo, Golden Morn, Nescafe and Nestlé Pure Life, with more than 2,300 staff, 3 production plants, 8 branches and a headquarters situated in Lagos. The goal of Nestle is to enhance the health and wellbeing of the society. The corporation supports the environment whilst achieving the company's long-term sustainability (Tay & Diener, 2011).

Nestles attitude towards business is in a prolong strategy. They have always been of the opinion that that the business success is in the creation of value for their stakeholders and their environment.  The technique they employed for corporate activities was called Creating Shared Value (CSV) (Chiang & Birtch, 2010). 


Creating Shared Value (CSV) at Nestlé ties both industry and environment by enhancing greater financial advantage, in a manner which still increases social value. Nestle was positive that the success of the corporation will be guaranteed by developing values both for their shareholders and their environment. (Pınar, 2011).

The methods employed by Nestle Plc to engage and retain employees

i. Good working conditions

Nestle Plc is a major adopter of two factor theories of Herzberg (Hygiene and Motivation) that believe in a healthy and sanitary workforce environment which minimizes workforce dissatisfaction (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman, 2010).  Nestle has dedicated itself to offering quality work environment, a conducive and restorative workplace as well as a flexible job prospects for its staff throughout the globe, which adequately bring an equilibrium between personal and business life in line with Nestle 's vision as the largest wellness and nutrition corporation (Kenrick, Neuberg, Griskevicius, Becker & Schaller, 2010). However, Nestlé’s engagement extends far beyond its staff.  They are meticulous about anyone operating within or without the premises of the organization under contractual agreements with suppliers of services and Nestle also insist on taking steps to ensure appropriate conditions for their jobs (Muchinsky, 2012).

ii. Employee rewards

Nestle Plc has been able to retain its workforce with the use of efficiency wage theory, which believes that an increase in salary will improve efficiency of the workforce. However, Nestle focal point is on good salary pay, flexible compensation and benefits, personal success and advancement which serve as a key factor in describing Total Rewards (Nguwi, 2013). At Nestlé's plc, recruitment and retention of existing workforce are not only through salary and bonuses, but also the well-deserved deference and respect the image of the brand gives to those employed with the corporation, also recognition and personal achievement are also experienced when employed with Nestle Plc (Nguwi, 2013).

Saturday, 10 October 2020

DESKTOP RESEARCH: A CASE STUDY OF SMART ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR TELECOMS INFRASTRUCTURE DEPLOYMENT

 


INTRODUCTION

Mobile networks are becoming the main infrastructure in developing markets from metropolitan areas to rural communities, and more individuals now have connectivity to power on the basis of mobile networks (Gungor, Sahin, Kocak, Ergüt & Buccella, 2011). In 2013, there was an approximate GSM penetration of more than one in three Africans with at minimum 1 mobile subscription and 76% of the populace in Africa (over 700 million inhabitants) (Andresen, 2016). The increase in mobile usage is in contrast to the shortage of essential infrastructure access: an approximate 32% of the total populace has electronics, leaving nearly 600 million individuals lacking electric power (Covrig, Ardelean & Vasiljevska, 2014).

The growing popularity of mobile services offers energy service provider’s urban domestic utilities and small town energy service corporations as well as governments an increasing chance to exploit GSM networks and technologies to significantly enhance and broaden energy services to multiple dimensions (Oksman & Zhang, 2011).  Innovative intelligent systems, including smart meters and mobile supporting software, can be utilized to transfer data between telecom operators, applications and consumers more efficiently and reliably. Smart meters can enable energy suppliers to enhance their link operations through wireless connectivity and efficient accounting procedures (Dominiak, Andersson, Maurer & Sendin, 2012). Mobile enabling technologies can deliver dramatically enhanced customer connectivity, data processing systems and remote bill transaction. As such, energy telecom companies will overcome the main problems they face through elimination of failures and cost recovery to maintain quality services and bring new consumers (Parikh, Kanabar & Sidhu, 2010). Therefore this essay aim at explaining smart energy solutions and it functions, the major advantage of the use of smart solutions, Smart Grid and the deployment of smart metering infrastructure.


 SMART ENERGY SOLUTIONS

In almost every area of technology, information and communication technologies (ICT) are becoming more and more used (Celidonio, Di Zenobio, Fionda, Pulcini & Sergio, 2013). The 'smart' phenomenon is generally motivated by the objective of gaining greater influence over technological procedures, choices and communication (Bliek et al. (2010). Bletterie et al. (2012) defines smart energy solutions as follows: any energy solution identified as 'smart' that has temperature-measuring semiconductor detectors and/or other variables; obtain and transfer data communication; data storage memory chips; and energy management chips, micro regulators and microprocessors to modify energy loads (Verbeeck et al., 2014). Smart communication systems can increase the power access via distant location surveillance and regulation of devices, as well as current transaction platforms and customer involvement to resolve the primary hurdles of energy suppliers (Ahonen,  Marttila, Dukeov  & Jalas, 2017). The term 'smart solutions' refers to the suite of ICT facilities, including GSMs, which can be applied to transmit data more easily and effectively to providers, operating systems and customers (Strengers, 2013). This provides single or two-way intelligent meters and activated services, such as remote transactions and billing notifications, to boost customer’s commitment (Brandt, 2016). With such smart systems, the basic features and technologies may differ among utility and Energy Service Company (ESCO) networks covering the two energy distribution models from local to metropolitan settings. According to Koomey, Scott & Williams (2013), the two compelling advantages provided to solve issues with smart energy solutions are;  1 ) increase awareness of energy transfers and use via remote surveillance and tracking, and 2) boosting the efficiency of billing via mobile apps.

We are in a time period where almost anything is now asked to be smart (Geelen, Kempen, Hoogstraten & Liotta, 2012). Smart materials, smart devices, Smartphone’s, smart grid and smart metering are a few case studies. It is necessary to bring this into alignment with smart energy solutions in terms of the energy portfolio (Margelis, Piechocki, Kaleshi & Thomas, 2015).

Smart energy solutions are required in order to shift the path of operation in energy concerns, spanning the overall energy spectrum within five main categories: energy baselines and principles, energy resources, power generation, energy transformation, and energy conservation, so that the solution of energy is smart (Lindmark & Hakansson, 2013). The continued transition on the supply edge towards renewable energy solutions on both the central grid as well as smart devices will be required to support smart energy solutions (Feltin et al., 2011). Smart energy solutions may also offer customers with ways of reducing expenses in several aspects: by adjusting demand, by improving knowledge and automation, and by trying to be end users (Schrenk, Wasserburger, Music, & Dörrzapf, 2013).

Friday, 9 October 2020

BLACK PANTHER II ASSIGNMENT

 

 

INTRODUCTION 

The movie Black Panther was produced in 2018 during the winter making it the 17th movie in the Marvel Cinematic Universe and the highest grossing movie franchise in decades (Beer, 2018).  The movie director is Ryan Coogler and it depicted the story of African Kingdom of Wakanda which protected its people against the European colonization and attained a technological advancement through the adoption of a mineral referred to as Vibranium (Eckhardt, 2018).   Furthermore, the stories depicted in the movie draw a global attention from viewers which made it enormously successfully (Beck, 2018).  This work analysis the marketing strategy adopted for the producers and markers of the Black Panther 2.  In addition, the work seeks to examine the target audience for the movie as this is essential for the success and distribution of the movies. Finally, the work will review some related literature on various marketing strategies adopted to promote movies and identify a gap in studying films made for Black audiences is apparent.

 

TARGET AUDIENCE

The term target audience or market referred to the people or consumers that a product is targeted at and it implies the segment of the market manufacturer or in this case the producers of Black Panther 2 Movie targets (Ingram, 2018).   Owing to cultural differences and taste of individuals, there is need to identify the target market before adopting any marketing mix or strategy (Huang, Oppewal, & Mavondo, 2013).  Furthermore, target audience helps the marketer to integrate all components of the marketing activities towards a single group, thus maximizing the appeal brands to particular set of people (Gbadamosi, 2015).

Black Panther takes into cognizance the rise of multicultural globalization influenced by various individuals that represent an essential spending power.   The Black Panther established action movie tropes to a new market demographic (Wise, 2018).  The movie targeted firstly the black race all over the world with steadfast support and rally for Black Panther demonstrated that this target audience will support a movie that illustrated the right aspect of black history during colonization.  The Black Panther suits this group of customer segments (Mendelson, 2018).   Finally, the target audience of Black Panther was focused on good movie lovers based on research carried out online on individual profiles that show their kind of movies and in addition,  those who love history and how colonization played out in some part of Africa.  All genders were targeted and from age range of 13 and above which makes it broad and huge market for the movie.

 

 MARKETING CAMPAIGN ADOPTED BY BLACK PANTHER II

The marketing company of Black Panther 2 is the Disney which deployed a 360 degree customer experience to marketing the movie such as anywhere you look, you see Black Panther.  This marketing strategy encompasses eight embedded marketing communication factors influenced movie ticket purchases for the Black Panther movie (Peñaloza, 2018).  In addition, Disney adopted Cross Cultural marketing strategy which involved various media and platforms to raise the profile of the movie (Lang,  & Lopez, 2018).   Furthermore, Disney adopted digital marketing such as social media platform, website traffic generation and Search Engine Optimization (SEO).

 

BLACK PANTHER II ASSIGNMENT

 

 

INTRODUCTION 

The movie Black Panther was produced in 2018 during the winter making it the 17th movie in the Marvel Cinematic Universe and the highest grossing movie franchise in decades (Beer, 2018).  The movie director is Ryan Coogler and it depicted the story of African Kingdom of Wakanda which protected its people against the European colonization and attained a technological advancement through the adoption of a mineral referred to as Vibranium (Eckhardt, 2018).   Furthermore, the stories depicted in the movie draw a global attention from viewers which made it enormously successfully (Beck, 2018).  This work analysis the marketing strategy adopted for the producers and markers of the Black Panther 2.  In addition, the work seeks to examine the target audience for the movie as this is essential for the success and distribution of the movies. Finally, the work will review some related literature on various marketing strategies adopted to promote movies and identify a gap in studying films made for Black audiences is apparent.

 

TARGET AUDIENCE

The term target audience or market referred to the people or consumers that a product is targeted at and it implies the segment of the market manufacturer or in this case the producers of Black Panther 2 Movie targets (Ingram, 2018).   Owing to cultural differences and taste of individuals, there is need to identify the target market before adopting any marketing mix or strategy (Huang, Oppewal, & Mavondo, 2013).  Furthermore, target audience helps the marketer to integrate all components of the marketing activities towards a single group, thus maximizing the appeal brands to particular set of people (Gbadamosi, 2015).

Black Panther takes into cognizance the rise of multicultural globalization influenced by various individuals that represent an essential spending power.   The Black Panther established action movie tropes to a new market demographic (Wise, 2018).  The movie targeted firstly the black race all over the world with steadfast support and rally for Black Panther demonstrated that this target audience will support a movie that illustrated the right aspect of black history during colonization.  The Black Panther suits this group of customer segments (Mendelson, 2018).   Finally, the target audience of Black Panther was focused on good movie lovers based on research carried out online on individual profiles that show their kind of movies and in addition,  those who love history and how colonization played out in some part of Africa.  All genders were targeted and from age range of 13 and above which makes it broad and huge market for the movie.

 MARKETING CAMPAIGN ADOPTED BY BLACK PANTHER II

The marketing company of Black Panther 2 is the Disney which deployed a 360 degree customer experience to marketing the movie such as anywhere you look, you see Black Panther.  This marketing strategy encompasses eight embedded marketing communication factors influenced movie ticket purchases for the Black Panther movie (Peñaloza, 2018).  In addition, Disney adopted Cross Cultural marketing strategy which involved various media and platforms to raise the profile of the movie (Lang,  & Lopez, 2018).   Furthermore, Disney adopted digital marketing such as social media platform, website traffic generation and Search Engine Optimization (SEO).

Thursday, 8 October 2020

Discuss the reason why countries might choose to engage in protectionist trade policies

 

 Reasons for Protectionism

As a matter of fact, no countries in the world that truly practice free trade although the arguments put up are very persuasive. All governments to some extent do restrict the movement of goods & services in & out of borders

what are some of the reasons given for trade restrictions?

(1) Protecting the infant industry. This is the most traditional excuse & is often used by developing countries. They claim that they have many sunrise industries with great potential to be transformed into international business. However, at the meantime they yet to realize the cost advantages from economies of scale. They need time to enlarge their market share, trained their labors & learn to produce via the most cost-efficient method. As such they need ‘temporary’ protection from low-cost foreign producers until they are able to compete on equal footing. So tariffs are put up , making the once-cheap foreign goods to be artificially expensive. Local producers can now raise the price of their goods & thus enable them to enjoy some profits


(2) Protecting jobs. At any given time in an economy, there will also be some industries which are declining (sunset industries). Normally firms in this industry have reached maturity stage but yet inefficient. Let’s consider US. In 2002, President Bush imposed the controversial 8-30% steel tariffs after mounting pressure from industry leaders & increasing number of steel mills that went under administration. If there was no further action taken, probably structural unemployment would have increased even more.

(3) National security. Some governments admit that although they may not have comparative advantage in the production of a good, protectionist measures must be maintained to ensure their survival. Agriculture & steel industries can become strategically important especially in time of crisis or war where they are easily cut off. In Japan, very high restrictive quotas & tariffs are placed on rice. The farmers need to be protected so that they can grow enough food to feed the Japanese in crisis. The same reason for US which wants protection for its steel industry so that they can produce sufficient tanks & munitions during an international conflict
(4) Protect consumers from unsafe products. Very often consumers are unaware of the quality & safety of the products they consume. Therefore we have the government stepping in to act as an agent guaranteeing consumers product safety. Cars must pass safety inspection, rules are made regarding types of chemicals that can be used onto food etc. Having said so, different countries have different standards that might not conform to other beliefs about product safety. For instance, the famous EU ban on US beef & dairy products claiming that the cattle have been injected with hormones to increase its size & milk production. The US government defends itself by saying that this does not pose a risk to consumers & EU medical authorities have no hard evidence for this

 

Discuss the ways in which government can reduce the different types of unemployment.

 



There are two main strategies for decreasing unemployment –

  • Demand side policies to decrease demand-deficient unemployment (unemployment caused by downturn)
  • Supply side policies to decrease structural unemployment / (the normal rate of unemployment)

A quick list of policies to reduce unemployment

1.    Monetary policy – cutting interest rates to increase and aggregate demand (AD)

2.    Fiscal policy – cutting taxes for the improvement of AD.

3.    Education and training to assist in decreasing structural unemployment.

4.    Geographical subsidies to inspire companies to invest in depressed areas.

5.    Lower minimum wage to decrease real salary unemployment.

6.    More flexible labor markets, to make it easier to employ and fire employees.

Demand side policies are critical when there is a recession and rise in cyclic unemployment


1. Fiscal Policy

Fiscal policy can decrease unemployment by helping to increase aggregate demand and the rate of economic development. The government will want to follow expansionary fiscal policy. Lower taxes increase disposable profits and therefore help to increase consumption, leading to advanced aggregate demand (AD).

With an increase in AD, there will be an increase in Real GDP. If companies produce more, there will be an increase in demand for laborers and therefore lower demand-deficient unemployment. Also, with advanced aggregate demand and strong economic development, fewer companies will go bankrupt meaning fewer job losses.

Keynes was an energetic advocate of expansionary fiscal policy through a prolonged recession. He argues that in a recession, resources (both capital and labor) are idle. Therefore the government should interfere and produce additional demand to decrease unemployment.

This illustrate an increase in AD causing higher real GDP.

1. Fiscal policy may have time lags. E.g., a choice to increase government expenditure may take a long time to affect aggregated demand (AD)

1.    If the economy is close to full volume, an increase in AD will only cause inflation. 2. In the long run, expansionary fiscal policy may cause crowding out, i.e. the government increase spending but because they borrow from the private sector, they have less to spend, and therefore AD doesn’t increase. However, Keynesians argue crowding out will not occur liquidity setup.

2. Monetary policy

Monetary policy would involve cutting interest rates. Lower rates decrease the cost of borrowing and inspire the people to spend and invest. This increases AD and should also help to increase GDP and decrease demand deficient unemployment.

Also, lower interest rates will decrease exchange rate and make exports more competitive.

In some cases, lower interest rates may be ineffective in boosting demand. In this case, Central Banks may resort to Quantitative easing. This is an attempt to increase the money supply and boost aggregate demand. See: quantitative easing.

Evaluation

  • Similar problems to fiscal policy. e.g.  Depends on other components of AD.
  • Demand side policies can contribute to reducing demand deficient unemployment e.g. in recession. However, they cannot reduce supply side unemployment. Therefore, their effectiveness depends on the type of
  • Unemployment that occurs.