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Monday, 20 September 2021

TAX AUDIT AND INVESTIGATION - CITN EXAMS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

 TAX AUDIT AND INVESTIGATION - CITN EXAM QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

INTRODUCTION TO AUDIT AND INVESTIGATION 

SUGGESTED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


1. It appears from a number of studies in recent years that the role of an auditor in relation to the detection of fraud is widely misunderstood. These studies have found that a high proportion of investors and of company management believe that the detection of fraud is one of the main objectives of an audit required. 

a) Discuss what you consider to be the auditor’s responsibilities in the course of the normal annual audit, in relation to the detection of fraud

Solution:

1a) The legal position is that it is not the auditor’s primary responsibility to detect or prevent frauds and other irregularities. 

The auditor’s duty is to state whether a set of accounts gives a true and fair view and comply with the relevant legislation. However, the auditor has a secondary responsibility in relation to fraud etc. in that he should design and evaluate his work with a view to detecting those errors and irregularities which might impair the truth and fairness of the financial statements. Therefore, in obtaining audit evidence the auditor should satisfy himself that those errors or irregularities which may be material for the financial statement have not occurred or that if they have occurred they are either corrected or properly accounted for in the financial statements. 

In carrying out this responsibility the auditor should exercise reasonable care and skill and apply current auditing standards because it is expected that if the auditor plans his work well and applies current standards he should come across all material errors and irregularities in the normal course of his audit.


b) Explain the way in which the auditor should approach and perform his work in order to meet those responsibilities.

Solution:

1b) The auditor should conduct a normal audit in accordance with the auditor operational standards. This involving the following steps:

i. Plan, control and record the audit.

 ii. Evaluate the test internal controls.

 iii. Design substantive tests which takes into account weakness in internal controls. 

iv. For the major items in the account, obtain relevant, reliable and sufficient audit evidence.

 v. Review the financial statements checking the consistency of related items looking at trends and investigating unusual variations. 

vi. If he comes across anything suspicious he should investigate it thoroughly. That is, he may need to amend his audit programme to enable him to investigate and follow up the errors and irregularities.


c) Briefly outline the action which the auditor should take if, during the audit he suspects that his client has carried out fraudulent trading.

Solution:

1c) In the course of his audit the auditor may discover a fraud or irregularities perpetrated by his demerits client. Normally, his duty of confidentiality prevents him from reporting any matters to third parties without his client’s permission. However, in certain circumstances the auditor may disregard the duty of confidentiality for example; he may be legally bound to disclose the commission of a criminal offence if ordered to do a court or by government officials empowered to request such information. 

Further, an auditor may elect to disclose information voluntarily where there is a public duty involved. A public duty arises if the auditor is aware of an actual or intended criminal offence likely to cause harm to an individual or effect a large number of people where the auditor is not sure of his position he should seek legal advice and if his efforts are frustrated by his client he may consider resigning his appointment under the provisions of the companies and allied matter act.


2. What are the expectations of the users of audited accounts of the external auditor? And explain the steps to be taken to bridge the audit expectation gap. 

Wednesday, 15 September 2021

END OF MODULE PROJECT ON FUNDAMENTALS OF MARKETING

End of Module Project

The deadline for your end of module project is at the end of Unit 9.

For an organisation of your choice (a product or service provider is equally acceptable) conduct a marketing audit on the organisation.

Your audit should contain the following:

1. A situational analysis including organisational goals, context and competitor activity.

2. A review of the internal strengths and weaknesses of the organisation.

3. The establishment of marketing objectives that support the organisational goals set out in section 1.

4. The development of outline marketing activities (4Ps or 7Ps) including a planning timetable to support the objectives set in section 3.

5. A conclusion outlining the benefits to the organisation that will result from the implementation of the marketing activity contained in the audit.

Your response should be in the form of a written report between 1,500 and 2,000 words.


Solution:

1.0 Introduction 

Marketing audit addresses the six major elements that determine marketing condition in a specific organization.  According to Michail (2020), marketing audit plays an irreplaceable role in organization as it functions entails utilizing of dependable information that offers insight into operations. Conversely, marketing audit can assist organizations to take advantage of all the opportunities which are presented by the market and as well mitigate negative threats that may adversely affect the organization(Drucker, 2013).   The objectives of this work hinge on a situational  analysis of MTN Nigeria with a focus on the organization’s objectives in terms of competitors’ activities, strengths and weaknesses of the organization, the marketing objectives of  MTN including the marketing mix such as the 7Ps and planning time table inline with the objectives.  Finally, summary outlining the prospects to  MTN resulting  from implementation of the marketing activity contained in the audit. 

1.1Situational Analysis

One of the big telecommunication companies in Nigeria is known as MTN, quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) and has presence in every state in Nigeria including Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (Skool Team,2019).  The telecommunication industry in Nigeria is huge, dynamic and competitive with various services offer to consumers (Sheriffdeen  & Adenike, 2012). The organization has functioned on a simplified matrix structure which addresses more effective conditions and was used for expansion to other nations allow for interconnectivity between these nations.   The emergence of MTN into the Nigerian Telecommunication industry marks the beginning of fierce competition in the sector owing to various services that MTN has introduced (Adio, Banada &  Eluka, 2018).  Nevertheless, MTN continued to be at the top of their marketing activities which has given them an edge in the industry. 

1.2 Internal and External Environment of MTN

The Nigerian telecommunication industry is huge with a market of over 200 million population making it very attractive. However, organizations like MTN has to content with the internal and external environment owing to the peculiar nature of this sector (Michail, 2020). Consequently, the internal and external environment of MTN in the telecommunication industry poses a challenge to how their marketing activities are carried out successfully to attract subscribers. Nevertheless, MTN has firm control over its internal environment as the organization has over the years never had any internal crisis from management or employees(Rilwan, 2013).  

It is pertinent to say that the increasing population of Nigeria, its cultural diversity, security and economic challenges and political factors have significant impact on businesses.  Furthermore, the high rates of cybercrime as a result of Internet and emerging technologies birthed from Telecommunication services have given rise to fierce regulations in the industry which has potential effect on companies such as MTN (Afolabi  &  Ojo, 2015).  The need to examine the external market environment is essential to MTN Nigeria owing to the dynamic nature of the external environment. Consequently, MTN takes into cognizance  that risk management is key to ensure the development of a thriving business (MTN,2009). In mitigating the challenges of the external environment, the organization  has adopted a risk philosophy that effectively balance risk and reward. The organization has built and integrated risk management structure that guides its activities that are mainly responsible and accountable for the risk management of both internal and external factor. 

Mid Module Assignment (MMA) On Fundamentals of Marketing

 Assignment Question

Marketing Orientation and Product Orientation are, arguably, two opposite ends of the customer orientation spectrum. Write a report that:

Identifies positive and negative aspects of each approach and draws conclusions as to which of the two approaches is the most appropriate for long term business success, explaining your rationale clearly

Suggest, using examples, what steps a business may take to adjust its orientation and what challenges this may create

You should choose one of the frameworks covered in this module to help you, for example, STEEPLE, SWOT, or the Ansoff Matrix.

Your response should be in the form of a written report between 1,500 and 2,000 words.

Solution: 

Executive Summary

This report focused on the discussion of marketing and product orientations which are debatably opposite ends of the organization or customers orientations spectrum.  The main objectives of the reportare to pinpoint the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and summarize on the best approach that would help organizations to realize long term objectives.  The report used secondary sources of data such as the internet, e-library, e-journals, e-books and wider reading from previous authors and writers. SWOT framework was adopted for analysis.   The report concluded that customers are the focal point for every business and their needs must be met through adopting the best organization orientation.

1.0 Introduction 

Every business has its objectives which are the core motivation behind the activities of the business.  Market orientation concentrates on building strong relationship with customers and competitive advantage in order to gain more market share(Yang, 2013).  Marketing orientation hinges on knowing consumers’needs andways to meet these needs (Naidoo,2010).Conversely, Product orientation concentrates on products with best features, quality and functionalities(Crittenden, Ferrell &Pinney, 2010).   This work focuses on analyzing marketing and product orientation pointing out the benefits and disbenefits of both to arrive at a conclusion concerning the best which can assist organizations attain long term business success and performance. Furthermore, the report will explain how organizations can amend their orientation and assess their challenges in order to overcome these challenges.  Finally, this report adopts SWOT analysis as a framework and tool for analysis. 

2.0 The Conceptual analysis 

2.1 Marketing and Product Orientation

Customer is a king in the business world and the keen competition to get their loyalty has necessitated various organizations to concentrate on understanding consumers’  needs and ways to meet these needs(Wang, 2015). Therefore, there has been need to channel efforts on products development with features and quality to become a vital part of people’s lives which could results to customers loyalty. Hassanqulipour, Ansari,  &  Elahi (2012) maintain that there is an increasing clarion call on organizations to demonstrate sustainability, Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate culture that enhances the values and create mutual beneficial relation between customers and the organization. 

Several companies have targeted to attain these objectives throughlooking back to the consumers and examining factors that have significant effect on consumers’ preferences and purchasing history in order to collate information which could be of immense importance to developing qualities and functionalities, thus bridging the gap in customers’ needs (Naidoo, 2010). 

Pertinently, there are companies who have adopted product focused approach concerning building their products, such as enhancing the functionality and features for uniqueness, hence allowing the product to sell itself.  Such organization are automobile manufacturers, mobile phones and computer manufacturers and so on (Kumar, et al., 2011). 

The concept of marketing orientation is aimed at attaining the customer’s value and to create a lasting relationship of trust with the products in the minds of customers to use and enjoy the entire experience (Geraghty,2015).  On the other hand, product orientation concept is concentrated on building quality products with little or no input from the potential customers with the four Ps in mind. Companies varies when it comes to products and services and also how the customers can be involved in the entire exchange process (Cook, 2012).

END OF THE MODULE PROJECT ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

 


Assignment Question

As an HR professional, we need to provide policies and practices which will enable us to get the best performance from our employees. As an HR professional what can we do to ensure that this happens?

Looking at an organisation which you are familiar with and their HR strategy please provide a critical review of:

The methods they employ to engage and retain employees? Is this effective?

What is the reward strategy currently used by the organisation? How is the effectiveness of these methods monitored and reviewed? Has this been found to be effective?

Provide recommendations for increasing the performance of employees within the organisation based upon the review carried out.

(Draw on your learning from Unit 5 – 9 and brainstorming activity in unit 5 to make use of frameworks, theories and best practice to support your ideas).

Word Count: 2,000 words  (The report is 2,000 words and then the reflective statement is an additional 200 words. See below for details of a reflective statement.)


Solution:

Introduction

The policies and practices of human resources management are the principles that a company follows in the management of its employees (O'Dea, 2017). It provides human resource professionals with detailed guidance on different job issues and helps in defining the company’s purpose with regard to multiple facets of human resource management including recruiting, promotion, compensation, training, selection etc. They are benchmarks for designing strategies in human resources or for deciding about the employees of a corporation (Anderson, 2014).A successful Human resource policy offers extensive input on the strategy to be followed by the company’s workers in their different job roles. All across companies, there are specific situations, and a set of unique organizational policies that are created to meet the needs of such situations (Pravin, 2010). Therefore the aim of this report is to provide a critical review of the methods Nestle Plc employs in engaging and retaining its employees, showing how effective it is, what reward strategy Nestle Plc is currently using, How the effectiveness of the methods are monitored and reviewed, and also how effective the method has been.

About Nestle Nigeria Plc.

Nestlé Nigeria PLC is among Africa’s largest beverages industries. Nestlé have been in the production of excellent standard nutritionally balanced products for customers in Africa for over decades. The corporation manufactures and distributes many famous brands, comprising Maggi, Milo, Golden Morn, Nescafe and Nestlé Pure Life, with more than 2,300 staff, 3 production plants, 8 branches and a headquarters situated in Lagos. The goal of Nestle is to enhance the health and wellbeing of the society. The corporation supports the environment whilst achieving the company's long-term sustainability (Tay & Diener, 2011).

Nestles attitude towards business is in a prolong strategy. They have always been of the opinion that that the business success is in the creation of value for their stakeholders and their environment.  The technique they employed for corporate activities was called Creating Shared Value (CSV) (Chiang &Birtch, 2010).

Creating Shared Value (CSV) at Nestlé ties both industry and environment by enhancing greater financial advantage, in a manner which still increases social value. Nestle was positive that the success of the corporation will be guaranteed by developing values both for their shareholders and their environment. (Pınar, 2011).

The methods employed by Nestle Plc to engage and retain employees

i. Good working conditions

Nestle Plc is a major adopter of two factor theories of Herzberg (Hygiene and Motivation) that believe in a healthy and sanitary workforce environment which minimizes workforce dissatisfaction (Herzberg, Mausner& Snyderman, 2010).  Nestle has dedicated itself to offering quality work environment, a conducive and restorative workplace as well as a flexible job prospects for its staff throughout the globe, which adequately bring an equilibrium between personal and business life in line with Nestle 's vision as the largest wellness and nutrition corporation (Kenrick, Neuberg, Griskevicius, Becker & Schaller, 2010). However, Nestlé’s engagement extends far beyond its staff.  They are meticulous about anyone operating within or without the premises of the organization under contractual agreements with suppliers of services and Nestle also insist on taking steps to ensure appropriate conditions for their jobs (Muchinsky, 2012).

ii. Employee rewards

Nestle Plc has been able to retain its workforce with the use of efficiency wage theory, which believes that an increase in salary will improve efficiency of the workforce. However, Nestle focal point is on good salary pay, flexible compensation and benefits, personal success and advancement which serveas a key factor in describing Total Rewards (Nguwi, 2013). At Nestlé's plc, recruitment and retention of existing workforce are not only through salary and bonuses, but also the well-deserveddeference and respect the image of the brand gives to those employed with the corporation, alsorecognition and personal achievementare also experienced when employed with Nestle Plc (Nguwi, 2013).

MID MODULE ASSIGNMENT ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

 


Assignment Question

Looking at an organisation that you are familiar with provide applied critical assessment of the recruitment and selection procedure being used as part of the larger Talent Management process.

1. Provide background information on your organisation, outlining the HR function and its responsibilities.

2. Outline and assess the full Talent Management process used within the organisation.

3. What HR planning has taken place within your organisation? Is this sufficient?

4. How has the Talent Management Process incorporated internal and external changes / trends?

Looking at your analysis and best practice what recommendations if any would you make for improvement within your organisation?

(Draw on your learning from Unit 1 – 4 and brainstorming activity in unit 1 to make use of frameworks, theories and best practice to support your ideas).

Word Count: 2,000 words (The report is 2,000 words and then the reflective statement is an additional 200 words. See below for details of reflective statement.)

Solution:

Introduction

For decades, Human resource management has evolved significantly and has played an essential role in organizational success (Hills, 2011). Human resource management played a more administrative function which includes recruitment and selection, motivation, reward and compensation, payroll processing and so on (Church, 2015).Several organizations are aware that the task of talent management is essential to the hiring of the best employees, their coaching, creating a friendly working environment, good payment structure and the engagement protocols for wellness programs and satisfaction of employees. As an outcome of an effective recruiting program, talent management has evolved (Church & Rotolo, 2013). Therefore, this report seeks to present a historical information on the organizational HR roles and obligations, outline and evaluate the talent management process, how has the talent management process has been incorporated both internal and external changes.  Furthermore, the report used Fidelity Bank Plc as a model organization and recommends improvements for the organizations. 

Organizational Background Information

Fidelity Bank Plc started its business as Fidelity Union Merchant Bank Limited in 1988. The institution currently has a footprint in Nigeria's metropolitan areas and corporate headquarters. It ranks amongst the first 10 in the financial services sector (Chima, 2014). The financial institution is renowned for its integrity in its activities particularly for providing its clients countrywide with quality services. In the Nigerian financial sector, the standard of the education acquired at the workplace and at fantastic business colleges within both Nigeria and abroad, also value Fidelity Bank employees. Fidelity Bank has always been mindful of the caliber of individuals it hires to make sure the best talents for the job were hired so as to facilitate collaboration, information sharing and skills within the workplace that can enhance profitability of all stakeholders of the organization (Chima, 2014),

Fidelity Bank offers equal opportunity to every workers and candidates, regardless of race, colour, ethnicity, sex, sexual preference, gender identification or speech, national origin, age, impairment, hereditary details, relationship status, parole or military condition, in compliance with appropriate federal, state and local regulations (Lockwood, 2010). 

The primary duties and responsibilities of human resource at Fidelity bank include; the management of the day to day activities of staffs within the organization, recruitment and selection of talents, training and development of staffs, creating and managing workers relationship, conducting Job analysis and coordinating the reward system of workers.

Talent Management Processes

At Fidelity Bank Plc, five talent management processes takes place and this include;

1. Identification of company goals and its prerequisite: Fidelity bank has high level priorities; therefore the first operation in their talent management process involves listing the goals and future changes that will be initiated in the business firm which is immediately followed by the building up the employment descriptions and qualifications for the position they want to recruit workers into. 

2. Sourcing and Attracting the Talent: At Fidelity Bank Plc, the first thing that comes to mind during recruitment is why a well trained professional will want to work for the firm (Gelens et al., 2014). This has always helped the organization to brand itself better and get qualified talents to work for them. In sourcing and attracting talents, Fidelity Bank uses online platforms such as LinkedIn to source for highly experienced individuals. The bank also makes use of recruitment companies who places the job advert on their website for application and selects the best candidates for the recruiting and selection process.

3. Hiringand Selection of Talent: At this stage, the bankperforman interview, conduct a test assessment and recruit the top talent. There are four steps at this stage; the first is the writing of a test which is always a GMAT 100 question to be answered in one and half hour. The cutoff point is always 50% and only those that meet the cut off will move to the next phase. The other three phases are interview sections with the recruiters, followed by the interview section with the HR personnel of the bank and the final interview with the top administrative officers of the bank and then followed by the selection of the best talent for the job.

Tuesday, 14 September 2021

MID MODULE ASSIGNMENT ON FINANCIAL DECISION MAKING

 Solution:

The Significance  of Accurate Costing 

Accurate Costing is essential to every business as it helps to make sound financial decision to keep the business successful and competitive.   In an every changing business environment with high competition, the need for accurate costing cannot be overstated. In this section, some of the importance of Accurate Costing System (ABC) will be discussed below. 

According to Atrill &  McLaney (2015), one of the significance of Accurate Costing System, it allows managers of  organizations to monitor profit and to make the best decisions for the company's future. A company's gross margin may be measured with the use of an accurate costing system (Atrill &  McLaney, 2015). Johnson (2014) maintained that for an organization to be as competitive and successful in its operation, there is need to know how much money the company spends. The organization will be able to create competitive sales prices that will increase profit and attract customers in this manner.  Therefore, Accurate Costing is significance in this regard (Johnson, 2014).

Narong (2009) posited that inaccurate data about company's spending might severely limit the ability to start and run a profitable business.  However,  managers can assess profit using accurate costing data, allowing them to make the best decisions and predication  for the company's future (Narong, 2009).

Another importance of accurate Costing is to determine a company's indirect costs, with the aim of supporting managers in making costing and profitability decisions that benefit the company. Only one overhead rate is used to display this. Machine hours or labor expenses are frequently used since they are closely related to the number of units produced (Hansen &  Mowen, 2006). As stated by Hilton (2006),  identifying cost drivers is a critical component of a successful ABC system, since it allows for more accurate and fully reflecting expenses inside a company. Furthermore, for businesses that just have one product or service, accurate costing  provides for a rapid and painless adoption. This is due to the fact that the overall volume allocation basis will only cover the volume for a single product over the whole manufacturing line of the company (Hansen & Mowen, 2006).

Comparison  of  traditional costing system vs Activity Based  Costing System 

When comparing Traditional Cost to Activity Based Costing, there are a few things to keep in mind which will be discussed in details below: 

Traditional costing technique apportions indirect costs based easy to identify elements  such as direct labuor hours. This technique of allocating  has been seen to be ineffective due to the fact that it has  no significant  correlation  between the cost pool and the cost driver (Akyol,  Tuncel & Bayhan, 2007). Consequently,  this can result to making e indirect costs allocation not to be accurate. 

On the other hand, ABC is intended to allocate costs to activities which allows for  better accurate cost information (Jones &  Dugdale, 2002). Furthermore, Activity Based Costing technique is generally suitable and applicable across the spectrum of organization functions and not just in the factory. ABC reveals  the association between performing specific  activities and the demands those activities make on company’s resources, thus giving managers a holistic view of how products, customers,  facilities among others generate income and consume resources (Najjar, Strickland & Kaplan, 2017).  

In several sectors, various authors have compared between traditional costing technique  and Activity Based Costing technique.  For instance,  Lu et al.,  (2017) investigated a bicycle components manufacturer and discovered that using a traditional costing system with a single cost driver results in skewed cost allocation. In comparison, Activity Based Costing system allows for the accounting of resource use by each bicycle component, resulting in more precise allocation cost (Lu et al., 2017).

According to  Kaplan &  Andersen (2007), in spite of the immense benefits of  ABC technique  over the traditional costing system, several organizations are yet to implement Activity Based Costing system owing to the fact that  implementation costs associated with data collecting in  the initial level allocation is high. 

Journal Entry

 Business Planning: Units 1 and 2 Journal Entry 

Business Planning Introduction: 

Unit 1 introduced me to business planning where I learned the aims of business planning, the elements of both good and bad business plans and the fundamentals of organizing a business plan.  Conversely, in Unit 2, I learned how to recognize the wider priorities of a business plan, the business plan stakeholders, their needs and preferences, carrying out a 

SWOT analysis on a business, carrying out a business assessment to identify major resources and advantages of the business and generate a value ladder. 

Activation of the E-Book/Unit Reading:

I activated the E-Book where I learned various concepts on the topic from the e-book.  In addition, I learned further from the Unit 1 and 2 Reading. 

The Anchored Q & A segment :

The first Q & A section anchored by the Module Tutor  gave me clear understanding of what is ahead of me.  Though the Q & A section was an outline and brief, I learned how my time will be apportioned to fit into the various activities. 

Discussion Forum: 

The first discussion forum which lasted for two weeks has assisted me in wider research and reading on the learning outcomes. Furthermore, I garnered vital knowledge from the various posts made my colleagues. 

Limitations:

One of the limitations I countered was my inability to cover other areas in my posts due to the fact that the posts were limited to 10.  In addition, I was unable to respond to other posts from colleagues.  Despite these limitations, what I have learned from the units 1 & 2 will help me in both personal and professional life.  For instance, I can now apply what I have learned to writing a robust business plan.  In addition, I can identify both good and bad business plan and organization of a business plan. 

Conclusion:

Summing up and as mentioned above, the knowledge I have garnered from units 1 & 2 is essential to completing the entire module as I will continue to build on what I have learned throughout this module.   





END OF MODULE PROJECT ON BUSINESS PLANNING SUBMITTED

 

End of Module Project

The deadline for your end of module project is at the end of unit 9.

Part 1:

Prepare a report for potential investors to justify their involvement in a project, new business idea, business start-up or other form of investment you would like them to make. This should follow the format of a business plan.

The report should make clear why they should consider investing in your idea. You should use module concepts and models to convince them of the viability and attractiveness of your proposal. You should justify the returns expected with the use of at least two financial techniques.

Part 2:

You are also required to prepare and submit a set of suitable PowerPoint (or equivalent) presentation slides which would be appropriate to support a "pitch" to your potential investors promoting your idea. The slides must be submitted as an appendix to your Business Plan and should not be more than five slides long.

Part 3:

In retrospect and based on your analysis in Part (1) Critique your business idea (using module models and concepts), this could include:

Risks

Weaknesses

Whether you should proceed, defer or abandon your idea

Limitations of models and concepts you have used

Your final report should be between 1,500 - 2,000 words.

Solution:

1.1 Introduction 

All businesses and organizations begin  with an idea of a product or service to be provided.  Most businesses need investors to enable them get the funding for operations and expansion. However, the ability of a business to present  a feasible and viable business plan is essential to getting investors to invest in the business idea, product or service.  This report presented Muna Global Concept (MGC) Makeup/Beauty business idea to potential investors justifying  their involvement in business, assess the competition it faces and so on.  The report adopts some models such as STEEP, Porter Five Forces,  SWOT analysis among others. 

1.2 Muna Global Concept (MGC) Makeup/Beauty Business and Target Market  

MGC main business line is primarily on cosmetics and makeup products to meet  individual beauty needs.  The product portfolio of MGC comprises of skin care products such as face oil, moisturizer, sunscreen, treatment among other. 

The makeup/beauty industry is development rapidly all over the world  with approximate to the tune of $532 billion and by 2023 it estimated to  $805 billion (Danziger, 2019).  MGC market is targeted mainly on female of age bracket 18 to 55 in Nigeria and some part of Africa.  In addition, the products target other businesses such as Spas, saloons, makeup outlets among others. 

1.3 Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning (STP) 

MGC adopted segmentation, targeting and positioning strategy to penetrate the target market.  This is significant according to  Tanford & Malek (2015) to ensure that the right products are delivered to the right customers. 

Segmentation: Segmentation entails dividing the market according to consumers preferences, age,  interest and taste (Akram, 2017).  Conversely, segmentation enable the right products to get to the right persons (Thoeni, 2014).  Consequently, MGC segmentation includes geochemical, demographical, psychographics and behavioural to meet the objectives of the business (Truong, 2016).  

Targeting:  In targeting, MGC selects the market units to reach with its various products  (Venter, Wright  & Dibb, 2015).  Therefore, MGC target male female of various classes from ages 18 to 45 in Nigeria and some part of Africa. 

Positioning:  MGC has positioned its products in a unique stand in the market and in the potential customers’ minds through the 7ps (Armstrong & Kotler, 2013). In addition, the company adopted various methods for positioning such as innovation, brand image, brand identity and packaging. 

MID MODULE ASSIGNMENT ON BUSINESS PLANNING

 This assignment provides an opportunity for you to describe a business idea, assess the competition it faces, outline the strategy for it and explain the competitive advantage you think it possesses to make it stand out in the marketplace:

1. Explain either your business idea or one you are familiar with

2. Describe which customer segment it is targeting

3. Analyse the competitive external business environment that you will face using two models that relate to the external business environment

4. Summarise your analysis of the external and internal business environment with a SWOT analysis

5. Using further models and concepts explain the strategy and positioning of the business idea

6. Explain where the competitive advantage for the business idea exists

7. Critique at least one of the models you have used in your report

Your response should be in the form of a written report of between 1,500 - 2,000 words.


Solution:

1.1 Introduction 

Every business and organization starts with an idea of how a product or service to be offered.  In addition, the idea takes into consideration the target market for the product and services, the competitors, business environment and so on.   The aims of this report is to discuss Muna Global Concept Makeup/Beauty business idea, evaluate the competition it faces, list various methods for it, assess  the competitive edge the business idea have that will enable it  stand out in the marketplace.  In addition, this report will adopt Porter Five Forces and SWOT analysis to scan both the external and internal business environment. 

1.2 The Muna Global Concept (MGC) Makeup/Beauty Business 

The  Muna Global Concept (MGC) Makeup/Beauty Business is involved in the sales and distribution of broad range of beauty products to cater for individual beauty needs.   Some of the products include brushes, lipsticks, eyeliners, mascaras, foundation, eyeshadows among others.  The makeup/beauty industry is development rapidly globally with estimated value of $532 billion and it is slated to exceed a market value of $805 billion by 2023 (Danziger, 2019). Additionally, the profit margins for makeup businesses are at an average of 40% and can be up to 80%. 

1.3 Target Market 

The  Muna Global Concept (MGC) Makeup/Beauty Business target market is focused on Nigeria.  However, owing to the advancement and development of emerging technologies, the business will broaden its market horizon to the rest of Africa.  Marketing efforts of MGC will target specific demographics such as age bracket 16 to 55.  Furthermore, the targeted audience would comprise of actors and actresses, local broadcasters, cheerleaders and gymnasts, makeup artists and consultants. 

MGC target audience or market are individuals who have keen interest in makeup and cosmetics products and are majorly customers who care about quality cosmetic products. 

1.4 MGC Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning (STP) 

For a business to ensure good product penetration in a market, segmentation, Targeting and Positioning (STP) is importance in dividing the market into segments and to offer various products to various persons in the market according to category (Tanford & Malek, 2015).

 According to Akram (2017), a market segment is referred to as individuals with similar interests for products of the common characteristics. To ensure that suitable products are offered to particular persons, MGC segments the market into certain units. According to Tanford & Malek (2015), segmentation comprises of geochemical, demographical, psychographics and behavioural segmentations. MGC have adopted all four market segmentation to meet the market objective set for the business.  For instance, the geographic segmentation helps MGC segment the market by cities, regions, nations  (Thoeni, 2014).  Ages, genders, academic levels, religions, income and professions are segmented using demographic (Truong, 2016).  

Mid Module Assignment on Marketing and Sales Management

 Assignment Topic

Reflect upon the process of sellers satisfying the differing purchasing demands of consumers (B2C) and businesses (B2B) as discussed in your reading thus far (see chapters 3 and 4 in particular); explore the range of marketing and sales strategies that are utilised by companies targeting buyers from these two distinct customer groups.

Explain how the marketing and sales strategies you have learned about can be applied to influence consumer and organisational buyer behaviour; illustrate your response with real-world examples of how sellers persuade purchasers from these different customer groups to buy their products and/or services.

Your assignment response is to be delivered as a written report of 2,000 words, featuring a series of appropriately headed sections and presented in a formal third-person style.


Solution


1.0 Introduction

Consumers are constantly on the search for money-value and the result is deep, evaluated purchase behaviour (Lasalewo, 2016). This report aims at considering extensively the various marketing strategies employed for B2B and B2C supplies. Focusing on sales management, PESTLE, SWOT, 7Ps,etc, there will be a discussion on how suppliers locate and satisfy their customers. Also, to further accentuate the nature of these concepts, a real life scenario shall be used for analysis.


2.0 Business-To-Consumer (B2C) ConsumptionBehaviour

Consumers generally operate on a pedestal of product-money-value experience. To purchase a product or service is to derive maximum value from it. In addressing consumer behaviour, certain factors need to be considered including who buys, why they buy, and their choice criteria (Blackwell et al, 2003).


2.1 Who Buys?

The question of who buys is settled in the fact that consumers in this case are individuals. In this case, the choice is the buyer is eventually made after the roles of the initiator, influencer, decider, buyer, and user. Sometimes, an individual may fulfil all the roles; while at other times, they may be spread across various individuals (Blackwell et al, 2003).


2.2 How Consumers Buy?

According to Blackwell et al (2003), the understanding of how consumes buy is intrinsically linked to the understanding of the basic notion that consumer decision-making process as a problem-solving or need-satisfaction process. The consumer buyer’s journey is arrived at following a series of steps – need identification, information gathering, alternative product evaluation, appropriate solution (product), and after-purchase evaluation (Blackwell et al, 2003). 

Friday, 13 November 2020

ONLINE VERSUS HARD COPY NEWS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NEWS SOURCES OF ABUJA RESIDENTS

 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study 

The emergence of Information Communication Technology (ICT) has transformed the way we interact and carry out our businesses.  ICT for short has been incorporated in our everyday activity and the newspaper is no exception.  Owing to the advent of ICT, readers of news have varied options to choose from i.e the hard copy news papers or the online copy especially since the Internet came to provide online functionalities and possibilities far beyond what the newspaper could offer: instant and free news, interactive and multimedia features, and easy accessibility through very simple handheld technologies like mobile phones and personal computers (Adejumo, 2014). 

Chukwu,  (2014), asserts that online copy news publication is simpler and cheaper and according to Hasan, (2014), the online copy news is evidently a more superior way to distribute and read news. However, by astronomically increasing news sources, the online copy new inadvertently threatened the newspaper’s traditional stronghold on the news business.  This proposed study seeks to examine the online versus hard copy news: a comparative analysis of news sources of Abuja residents.

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

With rising globalisation, stiff competition and technological development, the newspapers industry is not new to changes; it is witnessing transition from analogue to digital and more recently it is undergoing the transformation from delivery of contents on papers (Hardcopy) to delivery via the Internet (online copy) (West, 2015).  However, there is a growing concern of the authenticity of the online copy news, while on the other hands, the hardcopy news has its own challenges of not giving breaking news since news are printed at night against the following days. These challenges have left news readers in a state of dilemma on either to opt for online copy news or hardcopy news and it is against this background that this study seeks to examine the online versus hard copy news.  

1.3 Objective of the Study 

The main objective of this proposed study is to examine the online versus hard copy news.  The specific objectives are to;

i. Evaluate how authentic is the online copy news compared to hard copy news 

ii. Comparatively analyze the features of both online copy and hard copy news 

1.4 Research Questions 

i. How authentic is the online copy news compared to hard copy news? 

ii. What are the features of both online copy and hard copy news?


1.5 Research Hypothesis 

H0: Online copy news has no better features than hardcopy news 

H1: Online copy news has better features than hardcopy news 


1.6  Significance of the Study 

This proposed study will be of immense benefit to both Media houses and government agencies saddled with the responsibility to regulate the media houses as the findings from the proposed study may be adopted by newspaper companies to improve on their publishing  and government agencies in regulating online news contents.  

Finally, the proposed study will be  added to the body of knowledge and serve as reference material to other researchers, scholars that would love to embark on a similar topic. 

1.7  Scope and Limitations of the Study 

This proposed study is limited in scope to online versus hard copy news: a comparative analysis of news sources of Abuja residents.   The proposed study will sample some residents in Abuja, the Federal Capital of Nigeria. 

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Friday, 30 October 2020

Research Proposal on CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN MTN NIGERIA

 SECTOR ONE 

INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Background to the Study 

Conflict among workers in an organization is inevitable. If it manages properly, it will bring catalyst for change and can have a positive impact on employee satisfaction and performance of the organization. Conversely, unmanaged conflict negatively impacts both employee satisfaction and job performance. When organizational leaders ignore workplace conflict, they send a message that unsatisfactory job performance and inappropriate behavior are acceptable. Awan &  Anjum (2015) says that properly managed conflict promotes open communication, collaborative decision making, regular feedback, and timely resolution of conflict. Open communication and collaboration enhance the flow of new ideas and strengthen work relationship, which can have a positive effect on employee morale. Regular feedback and timely resolution of conflict has the potential of improving employee satisfaction and job performance. Henry, (2011) argue that a negative work environment that does not promote conflict resolution can result in poor employee behavior and job performance. Unmanaged conflict promotes dysfunctional communication and poor behavior among staff. Poor behavior on the part of one employee has the power to affect overall employee morale, which results in lower productivity. If individuals do not have the communication or interpersonal skills to resolve their disputes, the conflict can grow and spread to others, eventually affecting their job performance, which, in turn, affects the job satisfaction of others, as well in addition to the staff not having the communication skills to address their disputes, their leaders often lack the necessary skills to be effective in conflict resolution (Hynes, 2011). 

Once human resources personnel are involved, the process becomes punitive and results in disciplinary action, which contributes to an even greater reduction in employee morale and employee satisfaction. Within any organization, there are usually different positions and jobs. People occupying these positions have different perceptions, goals, thought and concerns (Kazimoto, 2013). 


1.2 Statement of the Problem


Conflict can occur in any organization when employees with different backgrounds and priorities work together. Conflict can be expressed in numerous ways such as insults, noncooperation, and anger. Interpersonal conflict in an organization results from disagreement in some ways which can be emotional, physical and personal between two or more employees. Such disagreements could have negative effects on productivity owing to the ability to create organizational climate that makes it nearly impossible for employees to work together (Hickman, 2010). Furthermore, interpersonal conflict in an organization can not only affect morale but also impact the efficiency. It can also lead to strained relationships, grievances, absenteeism, and employee turnover. Unfortunately, interpersonal conflict is a common occurrence in an organization due to different personalities that must mesh and it against this background that this proposed study seeks to examine conflict management and organizational performance. 

MTN, as a telecommunication Firm has being suffering one form or the other of conflict, mostly interpersonal conflict among her staff which has affected the smooth operation of the institute overtime. The effective management of these conflicts will go a long way to enhance performance of the organization in meeting to its mandate.


1.3   Research Questions

1) To what extent avoidance as a conflict management strategy influences employee’s performance?

2) How has  collaboration as method  assisted as conflict management strategy in organization?


3) Is  accommodation effective as conflict management strategy in organization? 

4) How has compromise as conflict management strategy affect employee’s  performance in organization? 


1.4  Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this proposed study is to examine conflict management and organizational performance. Other specific objectives include:


1) To know how avoidance can be used as conflict management strategy  in organization.

2) To evaluate the methods of collaboration as conflict management  in organization.

3) To assess the effective of accommodation as conflict management strategy in organization.

4) To determine how significant compromise is as  conflict management strategy in organization 

Friday, 23 October 2020

THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (2010-2015) CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

With the evolution of globalization, most especially since the end of the world war 11, the world has become a much global place where interaction between different countries has led to a situation in which country’s economy and development are not only in the hands of government, but also highly influenced by international organizations and international trade where international laws and legislations pre- dominate (Gabriel, 2012).

Globalization has been a highly controversial process that has been placed under serious criticism in its current capitalist form and comes to a surprised economics and policy makers who are believed to be highly convinced of the benefit this form of globalization can bring to the developing countries like Nigeria (Adesoye, Ajike, & Maku, 2015).  Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, idea and other aspect of cultures (Akunbi, 2013).

According to Francis, (2010), globalization refers to the increasing integration among nations which has accelerated sharply over the past half a century, gotten largely by the remarkable expansion in international trade and extra ordinary advances in information and communication technologies. 


Globalization is the term used to describe the growing worldwide interdependence of people and countries, a process which has grown tremendously in the past decade, mainly because of great innovation in technology (Okpokpo, Ifelunini, & Osuyali, 2014).

Williams, (2010), maintains that the main essence of globalization is to move the economy towards external liberation, focusing on market- oriented economic system export-led strategy and stabilization of the economy.  Utuk,  (2015) stated that there are two views on globalization, one given by anti-globalist and the other by supporters of globalization or simply globalist. The ant-globalist view globalization as controlling and influencing force used by overseas cooperation’s to dominate international trade. This criticism has given rise to theories such as Dependency theory and new colonialism.

According to the globalist, globalization is the only true way to beat poverty, they argue that foreign direct investment will help developing nations to industrialize, create job opportunity and acquire manufacturing skills. Economic growth implies a change in the way goods and services are produced, not merely an increase in production achieved using the old method of production on a wider scale. But, it also involves improvement in a variety of indicators such as literacy rate, life expectancy and in addition poverty rates, in line with increasing private income, economic growth also generate additional resources that can be used to improve social services such as health care, social amenities, and safe drinking watered (Shuaib, Ekeria, & Ogedengbe, 2015). 

Over the years, globalisation has proven to be the most adopted mechanism in dealing with economic development, improving the social welfare of states and strengthening political ties between countries. Globalisation development theory adopts policies such as liberalisation, privatisation, deregulation and capitalism for effective results (Barry, 2010). However, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015) report shows that globalization policies are much more favourable to North America, Europe and some part of Asia compared to African countries whose economic, political and social growth has been stunted by some of these policies, hence their failure in benefiting from globalisation.


Globalisation as the World Health Organisation (2017) puts it, is "the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of peoples and countries generally understood to include two inter-related elements: the opening of international borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people and ideas; and the changes in institutions and policies at national and international levels that facilitate or promote such flows."

Nigeria being the giant of Africa has long accepted globalisation as a means to achieving rapid economic development. Paradoxically, with so much natural resources at its disposal, 53.5% of Nigerians were living in absolute poverty (World bank data 2009) and Nigeria's human development index reportedly ranks 152nd position (United Nations Development programme 2016). Given these figures, coupled with her high unemployment rate, vulnerable economy, bad policies, unhealthy investment climate, high level of indebtedness and corruption, it is clear that Nigeria is one of the most disadvantaged countries engaged in globalisation.

The concept of globalisation is not a new concept in Nigeria. It has always existed and has been embraced in most frameworks of the country (Akunbi, 2013). Nigeria has since been engaging in the globalisation process, adopting policies such as disinvestment, privatisation, commercialization and devaluation. However, recent data from the Economic Report on Nigeria (2015) shows that Nigeria has been experiencing slow growth. Some of the reasons for this challenge includes the Naira devaluation which ultimately led to higher cost of purchasing goods and services, structural problems that result in lack of transparency, low oil prices and revenue caused by liquidity, restricted fiscal policies and tighter monetary policies which engenders high interest rates and reduced activity in the capital market.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Globalization fringes economic development in economy globalization is faced to be a systematic way which technological advanced countries  to develop them by way of investing in the economic. However ,the effect of globalization on developing and undeveloped countries can be vividly seen, as the developed nations (i.e. technological advanced countries) tend to use the undeveloped and developing countries as their dumping, ground, for their used products and their sub-standard products for example electronic.

Also globalization has also faced the challenge of culture and language barrier, the different variation in culture and language of the different countries tend to affect the bilateral relations. One of the challenges of underdevelopment is the inability of a country to produce and create  unemployment for its citizenry, in order to meet up with the economic needs and social economic needs of its members. However, the research study is geared toward using the research study to solve these challenges in Nigeria economy.     

Globalization as the World Health Organisation (2017) puts it, is "the increased interconnectedness and interdependence of peoples and countries generally understood to include two inter-related elements: the opening of international borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people and ideas; and the changes in institutions and policies at national and international levels that facilitate or promote such flows."

Unemployment rate: Nigeria has long been engaged in the process of globalisation which implies, integrated economies, removal of trade barriers, increased cross-border relations amongst countries and interdependence between nations. The benefits of the above mentioned have been achieved by developed countries and leading democracies in the world. 

Wednesday, 21 October 2020

End of Module Project

 



Assignment Question

As an HR professional, we need to provide policies and practices which will enable us to get the best performance from our employees. As an HR professional what can we do to ensure that this happens?

Looking at an organisation which you are familiar with and their HR strategy please provide a critical review of:

The methods they employ to engage and retain employees? Is this effective?

What is the reward strategy currently used by the organisation? How is the effectiveness of these methods monitored and reviewed? Has this been found to be effective?

Provide recommendations for increasing the performance of employees within the organisation based upon the review carried out.



Introduction

The policies and practices of human resources management are the principles that a company follows in the management of its employees (O'Dea, 2017). It provides human resource professionals with detailed guidance on different job issues and helps in defining the company’s purpose with regard to multiple facets of human resource management including recruiting, promotion, compensation, training, selection etc. They are benchmarks for designing strategies in human resources or for deciding about the employees of a corporation (Anderson, 2014).A successful Human resource policy offers extensive input on the strategy to be followed by the company’s workers in their different job roles. All across companies, there are specific situations, and a set of unique organizational policies that are created to meet the needs of such situations (Pravin, 2010). Therefore the aim of this report is to provide a critical review of the methods Nestle Plc employs in engaging and retaining its employees, showing how effective it is, what reward strategy Nestle Plc is currently using, How the effectiveness of the methods are monitored and reviewed, and also how effective the method has been.

About Nestle Nigeria Plc.

Nestlé Nigeria PLC is among Africa’s largest beverages industries. Nestlé have been in the production of excellent standard nutritionally balanced products for customers in Africa for over decades. The corporation manufactures and distributes many famous brands, comprising Maggi, Milo, Golden Morn, Nescafe and Nestlé Pure Life, with more than 2,300 staff, 3 production plants, 8 branches and a headquarters situated in Lagos. The goal of Nestle is to enhance the health and wellbeing of the society. The corporation supports the environment whilst achieving the company's long-term sustainability (Tay & Diener, 2011).

Nestles attitude towards business is in a prolong strategy. They have always been of the opinion that that the business success is in the creation of value for their stakeholders and their environment.  The technique they employed for corporate activities was called Creating Shared Value (CSV) (Chiang &Birtch, 2010).

Mid-Module Assignment

 

In unit 4 you will submit your mid-module assignment.

Assignment Question

Looking at an organisation that you are familiar with provide applied critical assessment of the recruitment and selection procedure being used as part of the larger Talent Management process.

1. Provide background information on your organisation, outlining the HR function and its responsibilities.

2. Outline and assess the full Talent Management process used within the organisation.

3. What HR planning has taken place within your organisation? Is this sufficient?

4. How has the Talent Management Process incorporated internal and external changes / trends?

Looking at your analysis and best practice what recommendations if any would you make for improvement within your organisation?


Introduction

For decades, Human resource management has evolved significantly and has played an essential role in organizational success (Hills, 2011). Human resource management played a more administrative function which includes recruitment and selection, motivation, reward and compensation, payroll processing and so on (Church, 2015).Several organizations are aware that the task of talent management is essential to the hiring of the best employees, their coaching, creating a friendly working environment, good payment structure and the engagement protocols for wellness programs and satisfaction of employees. As an outcome of an effective recruiting program, talent management has evolved (Church & Rotolo, 2013). Therefore, this report seeks to present a historical information on the organizational HR roles and obligations, outline and evaluate the talent management process, how has the talent management process has been incorporated both internal and external changes.  Furthermore, the report used Fidelity Bank Plc as a model organization and recommends improvements for the organizations. 

Organizational Background Information

Fidelity Bank Plc started its business as Fidelity Union Merchant Bank Limited in 1988. The institution currently has a footprint in Nigeria's metropolitan areas and corporate headquarters. It ranks amongst the first 10 in the financial services sector (Chima, 2014). The financial institution is renowned for its integrity in its activities particularly for providing its clients countrywide with quality services. In the Nigerian financial sector, the standard of the education acquired at the workplace and at fantastic business colleges within both Nigeria and abroad, also value Fidelity Bank employees. Fidelity Bank has always been mindful of the caliber of individuals it hires to make sure the best talents for the job were hired so as to facilitate collaboration, information sharing and skills within the workplace that can enhance profitability of all stakeholders of the organization (Chima, 2014),

Fidelity Bank offers equal opportunity to every workers and candidates, regardless of race, colour, ethnicity, sex, sexual preference, gender identification or speech, national origin, age, impairment, hereditary details, relationship status, parole or military condition, in compliance with appropriate federal, state and local regulations (Lockwood, 2010). 

Monday, 19 October 2020

PUBLIC AND INTERNATIONAL LAW (CA)

 

QUESTION 1

There is no question that there are substantial and important differences between international law and municipal law. There is, of course, no overarching legislature of international law capable of passing binding international laws. There is no international legislative body and no corresponding national legislature. The international legal framework is primarily one that requires the permission of those it can govern, but not strictly.International law can generally only be formed by consent – issues who cannot be forced should never be compelled to do so. The scheme of international law is best understood as a horizontal hierarchical arrangement, not a vertical one.  What it means is that while legislation is enacted in domestic law on the subjects by the legislative body, it is the parties themselves who make the law in international law for themselves. This is somewhat unsatisfactory, but it may be best understood as the appropriate consequence of international law specifically dealing with laws directed at sovereign States. Likewise, there is no international tribunal in which States can regularly be required to appear in violation of international law.  

The function of the state is complex in the modern world. According to legal theory, each state is sovereign and equal, but it cannot be fully sovereign to the most powerful states. The growth and expansion of international law raises concerns about the role of the state in the international system. This has led to a growing interpenetration of international and municipal law in a number of fields, such as human rights, environmental and international investment legislation.

Municipal law regulates the domestic facets of government and discusses issues between individuals and between individuals and the administrative system, while international law emphasizes the relationship between states.  However, this is now an unduly common claim. There are also situations where there may be conflicts and complications between the two systems. In a proceeding before a municipal court, an international law rule can be introduced as a shield against an allegation, as in R v. Jones , for example, where the privilege of trying to deter a greater crime (essentially international law) has been asserted in relation to the suspected criminal offense (in English law) or where a vessel is punished for being in territorial waters (as applicable to domestic law) but will be considered as part of the high seas under international law.

Nonetheless, there are cases where both national and international tribunals have the same situation which can apply in a complex mediation process with each other's decisions. There exists an International Court of Justice, although that only includes cases between parties involved before the Court and only states are eligible whether the Court decides to issue a definitive decision instead of providing an advisory opinion . The Court has no part to play in penalizing States that violate their obligations under international law.The function is to settle state-to - state conflicts by using sanctions. And while some states have acknowledged the International Court of Justice's compulsory jurisdiction, it would only be applicable in disputes between states where both parties to the conflict have agreed to the compulsory jurisdiction.  Most likely the Court may only have authority if the parties to the case agree to the Court's jurisdiction over a specific case. So the focus here too remains on consent.

QUESTION 2A

The Montevideo convention on right and duties of a state, under Article 1, outlined four requirements for statehood. Article 1 reads thus:

“The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualification: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d)capacity to enter into relations with other states.” 

Permanent Population: The first requirements of the Montevideo convention include the permanent population of the state and the definition of this population as a 'stable community.' As a result, the population must be united, but not uniform in reality. This need underlines the critical need for some sort of stable human community capable of sustaining the superstructure of the state. It means that the occupants will have the goal of living in a given place forever . The simple occupancy of the land would not be adequate to satisfy the legal obligation. The presence of historically nomadic people does not necessarily have a lasting effect on permanence necessity.

Nevertheless, it does seem obvious that there is a need for any permanence to satisfy this condition, if not in living conditions then at least to imply the stability of the society over time. This does not automatically imply that it requires any unique amount of durability or prolonged legacy before a population can form the foundation of a society. Nor is the size of the population needed, as shown by the presence of states with very small populations. 

Territory: To meet the second Montevideo condition, power of a certain territory must be exercised. This condition is a crucial prerequisite for nationhood . Exclusive territorial jurisdiction remains a basic requirement for every State's ability and power to execute and exercise its State functions both in fact and in statute. 

Determining the exact delimitations of this area is not a prerequisite. In the case ofNorth Sea Continental Shelf the international Court of Justice held that:

“The appurtenance of a given area, considered as an entity in no way governs

the precise determination of its boundaries, any more than uncertainty as

to boundaries can affect territorial rights. There is, for instance, no rule that

the land frontiers of a State must be fully delimited and defined, and often in

various places and for long periods they are not” 

The region's size or income isn't significant either. What is relevant in terms of territory is the creation of an exclusive right to exhibit state control in that region – that is, active government. Sufficient if a state’s territory possessesa “sufficient consistency” even though its boundaries have not yet been accurately delimited 


Government: The third requirement of Montevideo convention allows a state agency to have a central government functioning as a legislative institution under land law and in successful territorial power. The society in question must be constituted of a hierarchical, fairly structured political order; central institutions must exist for the formation and enforcement of the norms of that order, particularly that organ called government. State obligation is not bound to any single mode or type of government, but rather to a cohesive, functional, and efficient governmental organization. 

The mere existence of a government would not be enough to satisfy the demands of an effective society. To accomplish this, it must be independent and autonomous, meaning that it is not subject to the control of another State across its territories. In international law, the importance of government as a metric of statehood is best respected by appreciating the need for stability and productivity both within the state and in the external relations of the state.

Capacity to Enter into Legal Relations:This is the fourth and last of the Montevideo convention requirement for statehood and is highly discrete, but it is often viewed in practice as being closely related to the third prerequisite of effective policy. It is because the willingness to negotiate with other states is mainly concerned with the developing institution possessing the requisite diplomatic and legal mechanisms for participating in the dynamic field of international affairs . The crucial factor attached to this condition is that of the willingness to function independently, rather than evidence of practice, in international legal affairs. This is attributed to the fact that central governments and not regional governments have the right to intervene at the international level.

Sunday, 18 October 2020

End of Module Project




Environmental Scan

You have been requested to produce an environmental scan for an organisation of your choice. The organisation must have cross-border business relationships with an EU country. 


Your analysis should contain the following:

Some context; the organisation's recent history, its objectives and structure, its products/services, etc.

The relationships with an EU country must be specified and briefly explained.

A PESTLE analysis examining how each of the elements of the external business environment has had an impact on the organisation. 

A critical examination of one element in the external business environment which you consider likely to have the greatest potential impact on the organisation in the near future.

Your completed document should be between 1,500 and 2,000 words in length.


Click here to watch a short lecturecast designed to help you write your assignment.


The learning outcomes for this assignment are:

Evaluate the broad approaches to organisation and management

Understand the economic environment of business

Examine the nature of economic activity in the business market

Identify and understand the main reasons why countries benefit from engaging in international trade with each other

Recognise the importance of the European single market for British business


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Mid-Module Assignment

 

With the aid of examples:


Explain the terms internal environment and external environment

Assess the view that "government intervention in a market economy is necessary to improve the environments in which businesses operate"

Your response should be in the form of a written report between 1,500 and 2,000 words.


Click here to watch a short lecturecast designed to help you write your assignment.


The learning outcomes for this assignment are:

Examine the nature of economic activity in the business market

Understand the economic environment of business

Evaluate the broad approaches to organisation and management


For more and complete academic materials, visit our Virtual Academic Environment at www.researchshelf.com or download our mobile App for past exam questions and answers at www.examoracle.com.  You can also contact us for research work such as theses, dissertations, projects, essays, assignments, reports and management of your entire students on +2347069373637 or israelugbo@gmail.com. 

Friday, 16 October 2020

GLOBAL SECURITY



INTRODUCTION

The definition of "security" is most often viewed as a specific meaning that "unrecognized majority view" can comprehend. Through the years, global security coverage has widened. It now includes a host of intertwined global problems affecting continued existence (Saier, & Trevors, 2010), It includes the usual or classical military power types, the benefits and costs of war among nations, economic prosperity, racial and cultural disputes, trade and disputes, electrical systems resources, technology and innovation, food, and harassments to human safety and the flexibility of the countries based on environmental deterioration, communicable disease, global warming (Baylis, 2011).  Global security, also called international security, is a condition of action to ensure collective existence and stability by nations and international bodies such as the United Nations, the European Union etc. these involve military action and diplomacy conferences, such as treaties and agreements, Invariable connection between domestic and international securities. National security or State security in the global arena is global security (Wohlforth, 2010). This essay will focus on revolutions as a huge contributor to global security, the challenges of global security through global terrorism as well as air pollution and global security.

Security is a key human issue, with a large number of sub-lists. We also take specific instances of economic security, national security, clean energy security, nuclear safety, information security, security of democracy and civil rights, individual security, and safety of human welfare. But the fact that we all must be interested with the global security of our communal ecosystem is now very evident (Buzan, & Hansen, 2009).  

All this includes global security, but it still relies most crucially on our environmental and social safety. This also calls for the creation of fundamental basic social rights. 

A dynamic community of support and their actions in a fast - changing world is crucial for achieving global security. It needs to concentrate on global warming and weather disruption and demographic increase, two of the most significant challenges that arise quickly (Elman, 2008).

We are still threatened with nuclear arms, but their relative value can decrease as global warming and weather transition and population increase proceed to deteriorate our ecosystem. We also need to start concentrating on several carbon emissions forms which lead to environmental destabilization and species loss of biodiversity (Tzemach, 2013). 

REVOLUTION AS A CONTRIBUTOR TO GLOBAL SECURITY

Revolutions are a huge contributor to social upheaval and the degradation of the climate. Wars are a type of disregard that we cannot tolerate anymore. We should dismantle atomic bombs and stop wars. Foreign forces must control military practices, and large amounts of military money must be avoided. These are old and discarded usage of our capital. We are facing and solving more critical issues (Global Economic Symposium, 2014).  We must also look at current and new highly contagious infections in order to worsen the circumstance. In order to fight them, there is a lack of global infrastructure. When international pandemics strike, nobody will feel safe. Communicable infections would make the natural selection of living beings barbaric with great pain and misery (Ivančík, 2013).

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EFFECTIVENESS OF DIGITAL MARKETING STRATEGIES ON ORGANIZATION’S PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF MULTICHIOCE NIGERIA)


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Background to the Study

Organizations in the digital age are exploring the best channels to reach consumers owing to competition, dynamism in the business environment and the quest for survival (Dike, 2015).  The increasing popularity of the Internet and its associated web applications has propelled many organizations into adopting what is known today as digital marketing to reach their target markets (Kim, & Ko, 2011).Smith, & Zook, (2011), indicate that the numbers of persons, organizations and governments using the internet globally has increased tremendously, thus shifting the attention of markers to digital marketing. 

Baines, Fill, & Page, (2011), defined digital marketing as the practice of promoting goods and services through digital methods and the Internet technology to reach online consumers.  The increasing relevance of internet technology has had a huge significance on marketing activities of organizations (both small and big) as it goes beyond physical boundaries in bringing buyers and sellers together (Bennett, & Maton, 2010). In addition, the internet enables organizations to access markets, while maintaining a presence that enhances competition against rival organizations. 

Stokes, (2011) posits that effective digital marketing is essential owing to increasing levels of globalization and the quest for business performance, profitand success.  In this context, Smith, & Zook, (2011) assert that various organizations have adopted new methods to improve their marketing activities in order to achieving competitive advantage. Nevertheless, there has been a lot of argument (Welch, & Worthington, 2010; Rowley, 2011 and   Wekesa, &Maalu, 2016) on the effectiveness of digital technologies in marketing.  Social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram, amongst others, have been identified as major channels for digital and online marketing of goods and services by organizations,in view of their significant impact on businesses performance (Rowley, 2011). 

Kotler, (2010) contends that in business, marketing and innovation attract results, while other activities represent costs. Consequently,effective marketing strategiesare crucial in order to achieve organizational objectives. Qualman, (2013), stresses the need to assess the effect of digital marketing on organizational growth and performance,towardsassessing and arriving at the best methods in which organizations cantake advantage of new opportunities to attain competitive advantage over their rivals in the business world. Kates, & Matthew, (2013), aver that in the world of digital age, organizations should take advantage of emerging digital technologies in their marketing activities or face the risk of being thrown out of business by competitors. 

Kuppuswamy & Narayan (2011), maintain that the proper application of digital marketing could meet the needs of the customer, byattracting and retaining consumers and attaining higher business performance.One of the major objectives of business organizations is to make profits for expansion and for its shareholders and this could be achieved, to a large extent, by effective marketing strategies (Scott, 2010). 


1.2. Statement of the Problem

The ever-changing business environment and the revolution in digital technologies continue to pose complex challenges to organizations which require the adoption of best methods for competitiveness and performance.  These challenges have been witnessed across sectors globally, thus driving organizations to be more innovative, scan the environment, embrace technology and effectively target their customers in order to remain relevant and competitive. In order to survive amidst this dynamism, organizations have progressed from being product-driven to market-driven, which has allowed better understanding of customers and competitors (Chen, Chen, & Capistrano, 2013). A paradigm shift, to achieve success in business performance and outdo competitors.

Organizations all over the world have been faced with problems on how to compete effectively and survive in the dynamic business environment. To overcome these problems, organizations have had to devise effective strategies such as marketing plans, through a mapping and thorough assessment of the most effective and efficient promotional channels.  The ability of organizations to reactswiftly and responsively to the environmental challenges depends mostly on the strategies adopted for its marketing activities (Welch, & Worthington, 2010). 

Wednesday, 14 October 2020

INVESTIGATING STRUCTURES UBLLWH-30-1 TECHNICAL REPORT

 INTRODUCTION: 

Explain broadly the content of the module and the importance of structured order of learning and output in relation to understanding and development architectural solutions.

Investigating structures is the introduction to the contemporary expertise of architecture, how structures are being developed and the core technical aspects of architecture which are; structures, materials, survey, construction and so on. This module aids in giving people the demonstration of being in charge of a fundamental skill set. Investigating structures likewise helps in informing individuals if a structure is loadbearing or a frame building. Experiencing all the topics in this module, students understand the linkage of the topics. This shows the analytical and cyclic procedure that is linked to studio work (helping students understand more on their studio project) which is the beginning of professional for an architect.


Chapter 1: SURVEY

a) Explain 3 different types of survey undertaken by a building surveyor, include explanation of when they would be used and when they would focus on


TRIANGULATION SURVEY:

This is the tracing and measurement of an arrangement or system of triangles to determine distances and relative position of points spread over an area, by measuring the length of one side of each triangle and concluding its edges and length of other different sides by observation from this baseline. Triangulation is best used for hills and undulating areas, this is because it is easy to build up stations at a reasonable distance apart, with indivisibility. However, In the plane and crowded areas, it is not suitable as the indivisibility of stations is affected. Although, towers could be built, which are expensive


CONDITION SURVEY:

This is a detailed inspection of a building to support and fix condition around then. It is done at a level that surveys each building element, portraying it and giving a point of interest of its present state. This can be used for concrete structures, cabins, bathrooms. A condition survey is essentially a fundamental device used to completely comprehend the state of a building and how to repair and maintain it.


MEASURING SURVEY:

This type of survey involves taking measurements of sites or buildings to create accurate data that is then represented at a reduced scale. They are typically indicated to a concurred degree of detail, to acceptable accuracy tolerance, scale, delivery times and costs. Measuring survey are used for the redevelopment of a property or when you intend to expand a property. This survey method can likewise be used when the owner of the property wants detailed information required for designing a safety plan. As it covers the internal floor plans, the cross-section of a building, internal and external elevations. The report would be comprehensive and useful when the owner of the house links the report to the topographic survey. It focusses on accuracy. This is because errors could prompt to severe application. Hence, it is imperative to appoint trained and expert surveyors. 


b) Provide an overview of the information and structure of a building condition survey report


A building survey aims to detect any errors in a property. This is accomplished by giving detailed information about the inspected building. The report is needed to document the current condition of the property, anticipate expensive that might be seen, causes of deformation, evasion of possible issues, maintenance and conservation needed and so on. What's more, building survey could be completed with the purpose of inspection and maintenance, for an improved standard of building condition and productivity and tenure with the reason for advancement if necessary.

AN EXAMINATION OF THE ICPC ACT IN COMBATING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

 CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

Corruption is Nigeria’s leading single problem. Corruption is prevalent and omnipresent in Nigerian society. It has infiltrated all facets of life, and every segment of society is involved. In recent times, Nigeria has held the unenviable record of being considered one of the most corrupt countries among those surveyed.  The Political Bureau, set up under the Ibrahim Babangida regime, summed up the magnitude of corruption in Nigeria as follows:

Corruption pervades all strata of the society. From the highest level of the political and business elites to the ordinary person in the village. Its multifarious manifestations include the inflation of government contracts in return for kickbacks; fraud and falsification of accounts in the public service; examination malpractices in our educational institutions including universities; the taking of bribes and perversion of justice among the police, the Judiciary and other organs for administering justice; and various heinous crimes against the state in business and industrial sectors of our economy, in collusion with multinational companies such as over-invoicing of goods, foreign exchange swindling, hoarding and smuggling. 

At the village level, corruption manifests itself in such forms as adulteration of market goods or denting of measures to reduce their contents with a view to giving advantage to the seller. 

Other manifestations of corruption in Nigeria today include the buying of votes, election rigging and malpractices, the use of money to sway the national and state assemblies, and political donations by private corporations.

President Olusegun Obasanjo, upon coming to power for a second time on May 29, 1999, promised that fighting corruption would be one of the policy thrusts of his administration. Accordingly, the first bill he forwarded to the National Assembly was the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offenses bill, which became the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offenses Act of 2000 (hereinafter the "Act").  The provisions of the Act set up the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offenses Commission (hereinafter the "ICPC").  President Obasanjo established, among other initiatives throughout the Presidency, a policy and programmes monitoring unit  and a Due Process Office.  This project seeks to critically examine the legal and institutional framework for combating corruption with specific focus on the ICPC.


1.1 Background to the Study

Corruption is a word with so many facets and ramifications that it cannot be easily defined. The World Bank has defined corruption as "the abuse of public office for private gain."  According to the World Bank, a public office is abused for private gain when an official accepts, solicits, or extorts a bribe.  Further, abuse of a public office occurs when private agents actively offer bribes to circumvent public policies and processes for competitive advantage and profit.  Even if no bribery occurs, public office can be abused for personal benefit as well, through patronage and nepotism, the theft of state assets, and the diversion of state revenue. 

These definitions are deficient, however, in that they are concerned only with public sector corruption, thereby ignoring corruption in the private sector. Additionally, Transparency International (hereinafter "TI") has defined corruption as "the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit."  This definition appears to be as deficient as the World Bank's definition. "Entrusted power" suggests power within a public office, however, in some cases it may also arise in private matters. Furthermore, corruption may involve an exercise of power neither expressly nor implicitly granted.

In the Nigerian case of Biobaku v. Police,  Bairarnian, J. defined corruption as the receiving or offering of some benefit as a reward or inducement to sway or deflect the receiver from the honest and impartial discharge of his duties. However, this definition appears to define bribery more so than corruption because corruption is a wider concept that encompasses bribery. In effect, corruption may occur without the element of receiving or offering some benefit as a reward or inducement to sway or deflect the receiver from the honest and impartial discharge of his duties.